Evaluating Textual Variation with Logos 6

textual-variants-tool-logos-6Most guides to exegesis include an important step in pursuing the exegesis of a given passage: establishing the text. This is the exegetical step where textual variation is taken into account, and one notes and weighs the variations in a passage to determine the text that will be exegeted.

In previous versions of Logos, the Exegetical Guide included a section called “Apparatuses,” which was the primary source of information to be used in establishing the text for exegesis.

In Logos 6, the Exegetical Guide’s Textual Variants section is a complete redesign of what used to be the Apparatuses section. The goal of the redesign is to make it easy to get to information in your library that may help with evaluating textual variation.

There are six parts to the Textual Variants section, each representing different types or classes of resources or data relevant to examining textual variation:

  • Textual commentaries
  • Apparatuses
  • Editions
  • Transcriptions
  • Ancient versions
  • Online manuscripts

Textual commentaries

These are specialized commentary resources that comment on units of textual variation instead of commenting with exegetical information. The most commonly known example of this type of resource is Bruce Metzger’s A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament.

Most textual commentaries have been focused on the variations found in the New Testament. For Logos 6, we’ve created a new textual commentary, targeted at the lay user with little Hebrew or Greek knowledge. It covers over 2,000 variation units throughout the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament.

The textual-commentaries section extracts the first portion of the note for the verse under study. This helps you get an idea what the variation is about, and it might help determine if you need to research the variation in more depth.

Other textual commentaries (such as Metzger’s) are listed in the Textual Variants section; if you click the title in your software, it will open the resource to the appropriate entry.

Apparatuses

Apparatuses are those things at the bottom of the page of some editions of the Hebrew Bible and of the Greek New Testament. They are typically laden with abbreviations, cryptic to read, and difficult to understand. They are highly compressed forms of variation data. This section largely reproduces what Logos 4 and 5’s Apparatuses section did: provide appropriate links to apparatuses so that the textual evidence for a given variation can be further evaluated.

Editions

For the purposes of the Textual Variants section, an “edition” is a version of an original-language text produced in the modern era. The use of “modern era” is wide, so these are essentially editions (not transcriptions) produced after 1500.

This section lists editions of the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament—such as the Lexham Hebrew Bible (LHB), the Biblica Hebraica Westmonasteriensis (BHW), the SBL Greek New Testament (SBLGNT), the Nestle-Aland 28th edition, and the like. Editions of the Septuagint are also included for references covered by that corpus.

Transcriptions

Different than an edition, a transcription is an attempt to transcribe the text as it occurs in a particular manuscript. These also often include the pagination and line breaks of the manuscripts in question. Items included in this section would be the Qumran Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis, and others.

Ancient versions

We read our Bibles in our own language, as they have been translated by experts for those who do not know the original languages. This is not new; translations of the Bible have been made from ancient times. What we call the Septuagint is a translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek. There are other of these ancient or “early” versions, including versions in Aramaic (the Targums) and Latin (the Vulgate) as well as Coptic, Syriac, and all sorts of other languages. If you have access to any of these in your library of Logos resources, they will appear here for you to consult.

Online manuscripts

At present, this feature only works for New Testament references. It relies on information provided by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research (Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung, or INTF) which is the organization behind the critical editions of the Greek New Testament: the Editio Critica Maior, the Nestle-Aland family of texts, and the United Bible Societies editions of the Greek New Testament.

The information behind online manuscripts is provided through a web service operated by the INTF, known as the New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room (NTVMR). This web service offers a public interface to much of the data that is used by the textual critics at the INTF in their work preparing editions of the Greek New Testament. In other words, where available, these are the transcriptions and the manuscript images being used to inform textual critics as they prepare critical editions of the Greek New Testament.

In Logos 6, whatever data is available to the public via the NTVMR is made available for your consultation. This may simply be indexing data that confirms a manuscript contains some portion of the specified passage, or it may be images or transcriptions of manuscript pages that contain that passage.

One example is Mark 13:8. The NTVMR contains data from many majuscule (uncial) and minuscule (cursive) manuscripts for this reference:

When a manuscript such as Sinaiticus or Bezae is available as a resource inside of Logos, the title of the manuscript is linked to the Logos resource. The links to transcriptions and images outside of Logos are available for consultation as well. Additional data entries about the manuscript (date, contents, page layout, and language) are also given.

In other words, for many major manuscripts (and several not-so-major manuscripts), you now have links straight to reputable, verified, and accurate manuscript transcriptions and images. For those who work though the text at this level, this is an incredible treasure trove of information.

Dig into valuable insights

If you’re only interested in short descriptions of variations, you can focus on the textual-commentaries section to see what variations, if any, have been noted by other studies and grow into the other sections as your studies require and skill grows. If you require more information on a given variation, you can dig straight into an apparatus, or into comparisons of modern editions you have access to in your Logos library. If you have transcriptions of material available such as the Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls, or ancient editions such as the Targums, Vulgate, Syriac, or Coptic versions, these are presented as well. Finally, transcriptions and images of several major and minor New Testament manuscripts are available through the interface to the New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room (NTVMR).

Logos 6’s Textual Variants section handles more data than previous versions of Logos Bible Software and presents it in a more meaningful and easier-to-use manner.

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Check out Textual Variants in action and see how to use this tool step by step.

Logos 6′s Textual Variants tool is available in Gold and higher: explore all of your base-package options, or see which package we recommend for you.

Logos 6: See and Read Only Highlighted Text

Today’s post is from Morris Proctor, certified and authorized trainer for Logos Bible Software. Morris, who has trained thousands of Logos users at his two-day Camp Logos seminars, provides many training materials.

If you’re like me, while reading a print book, you like marking up important points. Likewise, for years we’ve been able to highlight text in our Logos resources. Now, in Logos 6, we can go one step further. We can actually extract, view, and read just those highlights we’ve made in a book!

Here’s how:

  • Open a resource, such as Alone with God
  • Choose Tools | Highlighting
  • Expand a palette such as highlighter pens (A)
  • Select some text in the resource (B)
  • Click a style, such as green highlighter (C)

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  • Continue highlighting text as you desire
  • Open another resource, such as Moral Foundations of Life
  • Highlight text in this resource as well (D)

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By default, when we use styles in the highlighter-pens palette, Logos creates a notes document called Highlighter Pens.

  • Open the notes document by choosing the documents menu
  • Click the Highlighter Pens file to open it
  • Select Quotes as the view in which to display the notes (E)
  • Notice the names of the resources in which text was highlighted (F)
  • Click the arrow to the left of a resource to reveal all of the text that was highlighted in that specific resource (G)

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As you can see, by utilizing the highlighting and quotes views, you can in essence produce a personal summary, comprising what you deem important of any resource in your library.

You can learn more about Logos 6 features in the Logos 6: What’s New? Manual and the Logos 6: What’s New? Video, now available on Pre-Pub.

Also be sure to register for an upcoming Camp Logos live training seminar, including the January events in Tampa and Houston.

Logos 6: Tag Your Own Resources

Today’s post is from Morris Proctor, certified and authorized trainer for Logos Bible Software. Morris, who has trained thousands of Logos users at his two-day Camp Logos seminars, provides many training materials.

The Logos team has tagged the words of Scripture referring to people, places, and things. This referent dataset then allows us to locate every mention of a specific person, place, or thing regardless of the words used to reference them. For example, we can locate all the places in the Bible Timothy is mentioned, whether he’s referred to by name, with a pronoun, or though a term like disciple or man.

We have thousands of other words in books, though, which reference people, places, and things. These words, however, are not tagged. The best we can do is search for entities by name like Paul, Corinth, or shield. That is until now!

Through the power of a new Logos 6 tool called Community Tags, users can tag words in resources according to the people, places, and things they reference.

For example:

  • Open the resource Alone with God to page 56 (A)
  • Select (highlight) the phrase his name in the first paragraph (B)

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  • Right click the selection (C)
  • Select his name from the context menu (D)
  • Select Add community tag (E)

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  • Type David in the Add community tag box that appears (F)
  • Select the person David from the drop-down list (G)

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  • Notice that underneath his name, Logos places a dotted gray line representing a community tag (H)
  • Rest the cursor on the line to see a rich preview of David (I)

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Logos will also synchronize this tag to the accounts of other Logos users so they’ll benefit from your tagging.

So what’s the benefit of Community Tags? The ability to search them!

Try this:

  • Right click the tagged text his name (J)
  • Select David Person from the context menu (K)
  • Select Search community tags (L)

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Notice in the search results, all the resources with community tags referencing David, including Alone with God (K)! We’re now locating people, places, and things in our books—not just our Bibles.

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You can learn more about Community Tags in the Logos 6: What’s New? Manual.

Also, be sure to register for our in-depth Camp Logos in Tampa and Houston.

How to Incorporate Extrabiblical Texts into Your Exegesis

ancient-literature-example-featureGood exegesis starts with the text. But it doesn’t end there. You rightly examine lexicons, commentaries, and all sorts of other references as you wrestle with a text.

But what did the ancients say about the text you’re wrestling with? How was this verse used or understood by the Rabbis? By the Church Fathers? What about Philo and Josephus? Are there topics or ideas in this verse that were used in other ancient literature?

Standard secondary sources such as these have been available for Logos Bible Software for a while. But there are a lot of them (no, really, see the list at the end of this post!). And you have to know how to search, then you have to be able to evaluate the usages. And that doesn’t even take into account when commentaries refer to ancient literature (which happens frequently).

In Logos 6, it is as simple as looking in the Passage Guide report you probably already ran on the verse. The Passage Guide sports a brand-new section called Ancient Literature. The section provides information on how your passage is used in all sorts of ancient literature. Not only that, but it also classifies the relationship of the reference in ancient literature with the biblical reference you’re examining. It uses simple and general categories like citation, quotation, allusion, echo, topical, lexical, phrase, and historical.

An example—the one that actually prompted us to start assembling the extensive underlying dataset used by this tool—will probably help explain.

Isaiah 54: The Barren Woman

Here’s the text of Isaiah 54:1 from the Lexham English Bible (LEB):

“Sing for joy, barren woman; who has not borne!

Burst forth into rejoicing and rejoice, she who has not been in labor!

For the children of the desolate woman are more than the children of the married woman,” says Yahweh.

Why would a barren woman rejoice? Once you’ve done your initial work within the passage and within the canonical text, it might help to look at how the passage is understood and referred to in other ancient literature, and whether its relation is intertextual or topical in nature. Understanding how ancient literature interacts at either an intertextual or topical level with this passage can give us better insight into how the cultures contemporary with the Bible viewed barren women, their role in society, and why it would be strange for them to be rejoicing.

This is exactly what the Ancient Literature tool gives you. It points you to relevant portions of ancient literature, classifying the relationship so you can determine if the reference is something you’d like to examine further:

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Ancient Near Eastern literature

Literature in this category does not directly interact with the text of the Bible, but it is from the same milieu and can give us insight into how cultures contemporary with ancient Israel viewed similar concepts and topics.

One document, known as “Enki and Ninmah” (Context of Scripture 1.159) uses the concept of a barren woman. It also shows the cultural notion that a woman unable to give birth was deemed as somehow defective (the larger context of COS 1.159 is a contest between Enki and Ninmah, where Ninmah is creating defective humans and challenging Enki to somehow redeem them or make them useful):

Fifth—she fashioned from it a woman

who could not give birth.

Enki—upon seeing the woman

who could not give birth,

Decreed her fate, he assigned her

to do work in the Women’s Quarter.1

Here, all that Enki could do with the barren woman was to give her work in the women’s quarter. Understanding the cultural necessity of the ability to procreate and the following derision heaped upon those unable to do so is important for understanding the craziness of commanding Isaiah 54:1’s barren woman to rejoice. She has nothing to rejoice over and is well aware of it.

Apostolic Fathers

In Second Clement, one of the earliest available Christian sermons outside of the New Testament, typically dated AD 100–150, the homilist begins (§2.1–3) by quoting from Isaiah 54 and then explaining what he thinks it means. If you’re looking at Isaiah 54, this is good stuff:

2.1Rejoice, O barren woman who has not given birth, break forth and shout, you who has no birth pains, for many are the children of the deserted woman, more than she who has a husband.  The one who says, “Rejoice, O barren woman who has not given birth,” speaks to us, for our church was barren before children were given to her. 2 And the one who says “Shout you who has no birth pains,” means this: offer up our prayers sincerely to God, we should not grow weary like women in labor.  3 And the one who says, “For many are the children of the deserted woman, more than she who has a husband,” since our people seem to be deserted by God, but now we who have believed have become many more than those who seemed to have God.2

In Second Clement, the barren woman is identified as the church, and the growth of the church is identified as the children of the barren woman—pretty interesting.

Judiaca

In the Babylonian Talmud, b.Ber. I.8 mentions Isaiah 54:1. Beruriah is the wife of Rabbi Meir; here she is fielding a question about barren women, specifically referencing Isaiah 54:1:

I.8 A. A certain min said to Beruriah, “It is written, ‘Sing, O barren woman, who has not born . . .’ (Is. 54:1).

B.“Because the woman is barren, should she rejoice?”

      1. She said to him, “Idiot, look at the end of the same verse of Scripture, for it is written, ‘For the children of the desolate shall be more than the children of the married woman, says the Lord’ (Is. 54:1).
      2. “What then is the sense of, ‘Barren woman, who has not born’?

E.“Rejoice, O congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman [that is,] who has not born children destined for Gehenna such as yourself.”3

Beruriah’s scorn for the lazy exegesis of the Isaiah passage by the one consulting her is evident in her response in ‘B’, labeling him an idiot for not reading the rest of the verse, and then in ‘E’ by her declaration that he is destined for Gehenna as well.

Other references

And there is so much more. Philo, On Rewards §§158–161 cites Isaiah 54:1 and then provides an allegorical interpretation of it. The Sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q265 Fragment 2) allude to it so we know the passage was used among the Qumran community. There are references in the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (2 Baruch 10.14; Apocalypse of Elijah 2.38; and more). There are several references in the writings of the Church Fathers.

Get started with Ancient Literature

In the past, users with all of these resources may not have found these references unless they were serious power users with serious search skills. Even then, the references would not have been classified.

Ancient Literature gives you an entry point into all sorts of ancient writings related to the Bible in one way or another. And it provides you with information relevant to the section of Scripture you are studying. It helps you to see how the ancients—rightly or wrongly—used the passage you’re studying. And that could be just the piece you need to better understand your text.

Literature areas and resources for exploration

As you study with the Ancient Literature tool, you can pull from several different resource categories in your library, including:

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Check out Ancient Literature in action and see how to use this tool step by step.

Logos 6’s Ancient Literature tool is available in Silver and higher: explore all of your base-package options, or see which package we recommend for you.

  1. William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, The Context of Scripture (Leiden: Brill, 1997–), 518. []
  2. Rick Brannan, trans., The Apostolic Fathers in English (Logos Bible Software, 2012). []
  3. Jacob Neusner, The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2011), 56–57. []

Get an Academic Advantage with Logos 6

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Logos 6 equips you with cutting-edge tools for intense academic work. Enter any passage and consult up-to-date journal articles, investigate textual variants, see cross-references in ancient literature, and connect cultural concepts across your Bible. As you study, keep track of your findings with built-in notes and highlights, and enter this information into your lesson or paper with the new text converter and automatic citations.

Check out some of Logos 6’s tools that will help you engage the text at any level:

Textual Variants

Enter any passage or verse and explore the textual differences in all of your critical resources. No more complex layouts or time-consuming library searches—the new Textual Variants tool lets you investigate textual differences, consult textual commentaries, compare ancient versions and manuscripts, and view extant manuscripts online—all within a single guide report.

See the Textual Variants tool in action:

Ancient Literature

Interact with the Bible like never before with the new Ancient Literature tool. This powerful tool exposes thousands of biblical quotes, allusions, and echoes in ancient texts. See the comparative literature that surrounded the Bible and discover how a passage was interpreted by later Jewish and Christian traditions.

See the Ancient Literature tool in action:

Cultural Concepts

Gain a better understanding of the biblical world with the new Cultural Concepts tool. With just one click, you can search your entire Bible for a cultural concept, then access references to the same concept in ancient texts.

See the Cultural Concepts tool in action:

Propositional Flow Outline

See the flow of Paul’s writings and the intent of every line of text with the new Propositional Flow Outline. This new graphic layout applies to your morphological tagged English and Greek texts.

See the Propositional Flow Outline in action:

Text Converter

Streamline your workflow with new research tools like the Text Converter. Quickly convert Greek and Hebrew texts into a number of transliteration schemes, then input them into your research paper or notes.

See the Text Converter in action:

Notes

Keep track of your findings as you study with notes. Logos’ updated notes tool lets you create notes in any resource, attach notes to multiple references, and share them with your class or study group.

See notes in action:

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Discover more ways you can enhance your academic studies with Logos 6: get it today!

Logos 6: Study a Topic with the Sense Section

Today’s post is from Morris Proctor, certified and authorized trainer for Logos Bible Software. Morris, who has trained thousands of Logos users at his two-day Camp Logos seminars, provides many training materials.

As the celebration of our Lord’s birth approaches, let’s imagine we want to execute a topical study on angels, who appeared frequently during the early pages of the Gospels. A significant part of this topical study can originate with the new Logos 6 Sense Section found in the Bible Word Study tool. (Please note that not all base packages include this feature.)

Let’s walk through a practical example of using this helpful tool:

  • Open a Bible, such as the ESV, to Luke 2:8, which begins the pericope of an angel visiting the shepherds (A)
  • Right click the word angel in verse 9 (B)
  • Select the lemma ἄγγελος‚ angelos (C)
  • Select Bible Word Study (D)

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  • Navigate to the Sense Section, which houses the senses ring (E)
  • Notice the lemma in the center of the ring and the two senses (or meanings) of this word, angel and messenger, as assigned in the Biblical Word Senses dataset (F)
  • Observe the listing of the same two meanings (G) underneath the ring (H)
  • Here’s how to read the different sets of numbers:
    • The numbers to the immediate right of a meaning represent the number of times that meaning occurs in relationship to the total number of occurrences of the lemma (H). For example, ἄγγελος‚ angelos occurs 175 times in the ESV New Testament and 164 times it has the sense angel.
    • The numbers to the far right of a meaning represent the number of times that lemma occurs with that meaning in relationship to the total number of occurrences of that meaning throughout Scripture (I)

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  • For example, ἄγγελος, angelos with the sense messenger occurs seven times in the Bible, but the meaning messenger occurs 92 times, which means in the other 85 occurrences other Hebrew and/or Greek lemmas have the meaning messenger
  • Click the arrow to the left of a meaning like messenger (J) to reveal:
    • An expanded explanation of the sense (K)
    • The verses where the lemma ἄγγελος‚ angelos has the meaning messenger (L)
    • Other lemmas tagged with the same sense messenger (M)
  • Click a lemma in the expanded section to generate a Bible Word Study report for that specific Hebrew or Greek word (N)

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By generating and studying Bible Word Study reports for the various Hebrew and Greek lemmas translated angel, you’ll be well on your way to a biblical understanding of the subject angels! Of course, you can perform the same type of study for any topic you like, such as worshipjoy, or grace.

For complete written instructions on all the new Logos 6 features, check out the Logos 6: What’s New? Manual or attend our in-depth Camp Logos in Tampa and Houston.

Logos 6: Wikipedia

Today’s post is from Morris Proctor, certified and authorized trainer for Logos Bible Software. Morris, who has trained thousands of Logos users at his two-day Camp Logos seminars, provides many training materials.

One of the most popular websites on the Internet is Wikipedia, which is a free, user-edited online encyclopedia. This storehouse of information continues to grow in popularity and accuracy. If you’re like me, you’re constantly checking it for quick facts about almost any subject under the sun, even while studying the Bible.

Logos’ software developers recognized Wikipedia’s widespread influence among users and therefore decided to bring the information from the site right into Logos itself. As a utility, Wikipedia can be opened directly from the tools menu:

  • Choose Tools | Wikipedia
  • Type a subject in the reference box (A)
  • Press the Enter key to generate the retrieval
  • Notice Logos searches the Wikipedia site for your article and places it within its own Logos panel (B)

morris-proctor-wikipedia-71.1 As a shortcut, open Wikipedia from the context menu within any resource or guide:

  • Right click a word within a resource (A) or a hyperlink in a guide (B)
  • Select your text selection (C)
  • Select Wikipedia (D)
  • Notice the Wikipedia article is generated automatically within its own panel

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For complete written instructions on all the new Logos 6 features, check out the Logos 6: What’s New? Manual or attend our in-depth Camp Logos in Tennessee.

Logos 6: Passage Links in Guides

Today’s post is from Morris Proctor, certified and authorized trainer for Logos Bible Software. Morris, who has trained thousands of Logos users at his two-day Camp Logos seminars, provides many training materials.

Looking up biblical cross-references in print books is tedious and time consuming—having to turn page after page after page. With Logos, cross-reference work has always been a breeze. Click a link, and Logos looks up the verse in your preferred Bible. And in Logos 6, cross-reference work just got even easier. Scattered throughout various guides are individual sections with biblical cross-references, such as:

  • Passage Guide | Cross References
  • Sermon Starter Guide | Passages
  • Topic Guide | Related Verses (A)

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Now at the bottom of such sections, you’ll see two links:

  • Save as Passage List, which places all the cross-references in a new Passage List document (B)
  • Open passages in your preferred Bible (C), which places these verses in a temporary filter in your preferred Bible’s panel (much like an Inline Search(D); click the Remove filter link in the Bible to return it to a normal view (E
     
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For complete written instructions on all the new Logos 6 features, check out the Logos 6: What’s New? Manual or attend our in-depth Camp Logos in Arizona or Tennessee.

Logos 6: Factbook

Today’s post is from Morris Proctor, certified and authorized trainer for Logos Bible Software. Morris, who has trained thousands of Logos users at his two-day Camp Logos seminars, provides many training materials.

Just like the CIA publishes The World Factbook with facts and figures about the countries of the world, Logos 6 presents the Factbook (replacing Bible Facts in Logos 5), which produces reports about biblical people, places, things, and events, as well as a host of other subjects. In addition to being opened from numerous hyperlinks throughout the program and the Context menu, the Factbook is housed and accessed from the Tools menu.

Try this:

  • Choose Tools | Factbook
  • Type a subject in the box (A), such as a:
    • Biblical book, like Ephesians
    • Biblical person, like Moses
    • Biblical place, like Jericho
    • Biblical thing, like sandal
    • Biblical event, like feed 5000
    • Biographical person, like John Wesley
    • Topic, like baptism
    • Cultural concept, like marriage
    • Preaching theme, like mercy
  • Select your desired item from the drop-down list (or press the Enter key if your item is already highlighted in the list) (B)

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The various sections in a report differ depending on the subject under study, but expect to see information types like:

  • Media
  • Dictionary articles
  • Search results from your library
  • Referent dataset
  • Community tags
  • Miscellaneous links to Wikipedia and searches

For quick access to the Factbook, right click a word in a Bible and open the Factbook from the Context menu! The more you use it, the more you’ll be impressed with this goldmine of information neatly organized in a hyperlinked article for almost any subject related to biblical studies.

For complete written instructions on all the new Logos 6 features, check out the Logos 6: What’s New? Manual or attend our in-depth Camp Logos in Arizona or Tennessee.

Study Hacks for Students: Top 6 New Tools

professor-logos-6-study-hacksLogos 6 is every seminary student’s new best friend. It equips you to do smarter, more impressive work, and it saves you the stress of tedious tasks with new study tools.

With Logos 6, mind-numbing tasks like transliteration, citing your sources, and performing textual analysis are all done for you.

Here are six of Logos 6’s top study tools:

1. Morphology Charts

If you’ve ever been stumped by Greek and Hebrew forms or, for some odd reason, found yourself forgetting the ending for the first-person singular imperfect active indicative of a verb (tsk, tsk), then Morphology Charts will be your new go-to tool.

In seconds, Morphology Charts automatically generate paradigms that show the distribution and frequency of any Greek and Hebrew lemma, displaying all of them in a simplified, easy-to-read table.

Just right click any term in your Bible, copy the lemma from the menu that appears, and insert that lemma into your Morphology Chart. You’ll see the the form and frequency of that lemma across the entire Bible and get links to where it occurs.

This tool is available in Logos 6 Silver and higher.

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2. Text Converter

The next time your professor asks you to transliterate something, you can breathe easy. The new Text Converter transforms Greek and Hebrew text in seconds. Just copy and paste the text, and the Text Converter converts it into a variety of schemes for transliteration, including SBL General, SBL Academic, Scientific, Spanish, and more. Save hours of transliteration time with this new interactive tool.

This tool is available in Logos 6 Starter and higher.

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3. Interactive Greek and Hebrew Alphabet Tutors

Tackle the Bible’s original languages in no time. With new interactive tutors, you can learn to read and write Greek and Hebrew in the pronunciation of your choice, including Koine, Erasmian, and Modern Greek.

Select any letter—from alpha to omega—and you’ll be shown how to write it in upper and lowercase, how to pronounce it, and common lemmas that start with that letter. Once you’ve practiced drawing the letter within your software, you’ll get a score on your accuracy, so you always know how to improve (or, always have something to brag about).

This tool is available in Logos 6 Silver and higher.

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4. Propositional Flow Outline

Instead of doing hours of exegetical work—poring through Paul’s letters and trying to determine his thought flow—the new Propositional Flow Outline labels the purpose and intent of every line in the Greek New Testament for you. With a click, see how the text flows, how ideas fit together, and how each line relates to the next, then use this tool as an outline for your next research paper or presentation.

For example, search Ephesians 1:3 in your favorite Bible translation, select the Propositional Flow Outline visual filter, and see each line of text defined with its purpose: the first line is a wish, the second is a divine action, the third is a comparison, and the fourth communicates purpose. Hover over each label for an easy-to-understand definition.

With the Propositional Flow Outline, complex content and ideas have already been broken down and defined for you, so you can gain understanding by simply glancing through the text.

This tool is available in Logos 6 Silver and higher.

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5. Textual Variants

Easily explore textual differences across ancient and modern manuscripts with the Textual Variants tool. Textual Variants brings together all the text-critical resources you need to make new discoveries: get textual commentaries, like Metzger’s Textual Commentary, as well as apparatuses, modern editions, ancient versions, transcriptions, and online manuscripts all in one place. Textual Variants presents all the resources you need in an easy-to-use interface.

Discover why certain readings were chosen, explore early translations of the Bible into other languages (like Arabic and Latin), and see handwritten copies of the biblical text.

This tool is available in Logos 6 Gold and higher.

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6. Automatic citations

An oldie but goodie, automatic citations are every student’s dream come true. Copy and paste from any resource—including Wikipedia, when accessed through the software—and Logos cites all of your sources for you in the style of your choice. Choose from MLA, APA, Chicago Manual of Style, and more. Whichever style you choose, Logos 6 cites it for you!

This tool is available in Logos 6 Starter and higher.

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Do smarter study: get Logos 6 today!

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