Where’s Jesus in the Old Testament? Start with These 12 Verses.

We often read our Bibles as if Jesus made his first appearance in this world as a baby in the New Testament. Our story as Christians, we sometimes think, starts with the book of Matthew.

But the Bible’s witness to Jesus did not begin there. A common thread runs throughout the pages of our Bibles from the beginning of Genesis to the last page of Revelation: Christ.

Here are 12 New Testament verses that point to Jesus in the Old Testament. [Read more…]

Darrell Bock on Why We Need Cultural Scripts to Understand the Gospels

Can we properly interpret the Gospels without cultural scripts? That is, without knowing their historical and cultural background?

Dr. Darrell Bock says no. 

Dr. Bock is the Executive Director of Cultural Engagement and Senior Research Professor of New Testament Studies at Dallas Theological Seminary. He’s a pillar of contemporary evangelical scholarship that students of the Word turn to for theological expertise on topics like Luke-Acts, Jewish studies, and dispensationalism.  [Read more…]

Quiz: How Well Do You Know the Protestant Reformation?

Irish Chapel

Who was called the “Morning Star of the Protestant Reformation”?

John Wycliffe
Correct! Wrong!

"John Wycliffe lived in the fourteenth century, dying in 1384. . . . Some have called him the 'Morning Star of the Reformation' because he openly taught many of the things that Luther himself taught in the sixteenth century, 200–300 years later." — Roger Olson

Which cultural movement played the most significant role in instigating the Reformation?

Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, and other Reformers
Correct! Wrong!

Jennifer Powell McNutt explains: "One cannot explore the emergence of the Protestant Reformation without talking about the contribution of Renaissance humanism—what I like to call 'the tie that binds.' As one scholar declared famously, 'No humanism, no Reformation.' Today, scholars concede that humanism alone did not instigate the Protestant Reformation. Nevertheless, there is no denying that it played a significant role in the emergence and expansion of the Protestant Reformation throughout Europe."

The first of Luther’s 95 Theses was a Bible translation criticism.

Martin Luther
Correct! Wrong!

This one's true! Luther specifically addressed the Vulgate's rendering of Matthew 4:17, arguing that Jesus was teaching his hearers to repent, not to do penance.

In the 95 Theses, Martin Luther was the first to condemn the Catholic Church’s commercialization of selling indulgences.

Correct! Wrong!

The practice of selling indulgences had been criticized since at least the Fourth Lateran Council, over 300 years prior to the 95 Theses. Furthermore, this wasn't the first time Luther condemned the practice—and he wasn't advocating ending the practice of indulgences, just reforming them.

In what ways did Renaissance humanism prepare the way for the Reformation?

Leonardo da Vinci's painting of the Last Supper.
Correct! Wrong!

One of the biggest impacts of Renaissance humanism was the idea of ad fontes, a Latin phrase meaning "to the sources." People were returning to all things original—the Bible's original languages (Greek and Hebrew), the Church fathers, and even the Bible itself.

How old was John Calvin when he wrote the first edition of his Institutes of Christian Religion?

Correct! Wrong!

Would you believe Calvin was only 27 when he published the first edition of Institutes? Shocking, but true.

How long did it take for the 95 Theses to circulate in Germany?

Martin Luther statue
Correct! Wrong!

Johannes Gutenberg's printing press helped new publications catch on quickly. That's why it only took two weeks for Luther's 95 Theses to make their way throughout Germany.

What brought Ulrich Zwingli to believe the doctrine of Christ alone?

Ulrich Zwingli
Correct! Wrong!

It was a poem from Desiderius Erasmus. Zwingli wrote, "I shall not withhold from you, dear brethren in Christ Jesus, how it was I arrived at the firm conviction that we need no other mediator than Christ, and that none but Christ alone can mediate between God and man. Eight or nine years ago I read a poem of Erasmus, of Rotterdam, on the Lord Jesus, wherein Jesus complains that men do not seek all good from him, who is the source of all good, the Savior, Refuge, and Treasure of the soul. Whereupon I reflected, 'If that is so, why then do we seek help from any creature?'"

Luther was excited to translate the 95 Theses into German.

Correct! Wrong!

Luther wrote the 95 Theses in Latin, the language of the Catholic Church. Luther didn't intend for the Theses to be published in German, and they were translated into German without his permission. The Reformer's "concerns originally intended for the attention of the scholars and clergy of the Church became fodder for the masses."

Why did Calvin write the first edition of his Institutes?

John Calvin
Correct! Wrong!

It's all of them. Jesse Myers writes, "Calvin boldly included an address to the king of France in this first (very slim) edition of the Institutes. He hoped to provide a statement of the beliefs of the persecuted French Protestants, which would refute the misunderstandings and untruths that were being spread about them and prove his case that the Reformers were legitimate heirs of the Church fathers."

Quiz: How Well Do You Know the Protestant Reformation?
You're newer to studying the Reformation.

Coffee mug says "begin."

You know some Church history, but there's so much more to learn! Here's a great place to start: Church History for Modern Ministry by Dayton Hartman. See why Tony Merida calls this book "an enjoyable, readable, trustworthy book that helps us see the theological and ministerial value of studying our history."
You’re not a newbie to studying the Reformation.

Good job! You’ve studied some—now increase your knowledge with Milestones of the Protestant Reformation, a 4-hour course by Jennifer McNutt. With Logos Mobile Education, you can take the course at your own pace from anywhere you go.
You're a Reformation expert!

You really knew a lot! Even experts have more to learn, though. We recommend going through Mobile Ed's 3-course Reformation Bundle to gain a deeper understanding of the history and legacy of the Reformation.
You're a Reformation scholar!

Whoa, did you read the 95 Theses in Latin? Study essential works from Martin Luther or John Calvin to explore the Reformation through the eyes of people who lived it.

‘You Are God’s Tool’: 8 Compelling Ulrich Zwingli Quotes

In almost any discussion of the Reformation, Luther’s name comes up first—as it should. 

Or should it? [Read more…]

Renaissance Humanism: The Tie That Binds the Protestant Reformation

This post on Renaissance humanism is by Jennifer Powell McNutt, excerpted from CH221 Milestones of the Protestant Reformation.

One cannot explore the emergence of the Protestant Reformation without talking about the contribution of Renaissance humanism—what I like to call “the tie that binds.”  [Read more…]

15 John Calvin Quotes on Truth, Faith, Salvation, and More

John Calvin (1509–1564) was only eight years old when Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the Wittenburg Church door, yet he became a formative voice in the Protestant Reformation. Calvin’s writing, with works like Institutes of the Christian Religion, and his service to the church at Geneva, Switzerland, helped the Reformation take root in Western Europe—and around the world. [Read more…]

How Luther Accidentally Sparked the Reformation

“They were superhuman.”

It’s easy to think that when it comes to the Reformers. They stood up to the world’s strongest power. They did what others didn’t dare to do. They changed the world.  [Read more…]

John Wycliffe: The Morning Star of the Reformation

The Trial of Wycliffe AD 1377 by Ford Madox Brown
Source: commons.wikimedia.org

You know about Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli. You may even know about Thomas Cranmer and John Knox. . . . 

But what do you know about the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation? [Read more…]

Spiritual Formation: 14 Verses on God’s Intention for Spiritual Growth

God calls all Christians to become more like Jesus through the power of the Holy Spirit (2 Cor 3:18), and this transformation happens in the innermost part of a person: their heart. This progression is called spiritual formation, which involves learning to hear God in his Word, growing in the grace and knowledge of Jesus, and bearing lasting fruit. [Read more…]

Why Your Genesis Commentaries Might Be Like 8-Track Tapes

This post has been adapted from The Bible Unfiltered by Dr Michael S. Heiser.

We’ve all heard the old saying that certain things get better with age—wine, cheese, common sense. Anyone who’s watched Antiques Roadshow also knows that the longer you have something that there’s a demand for—real estate, investments, fine art, a popular car—the more value it will accrue. Unfortunately, the reverse is true for many of the most popular tools for biblical study. They’re often more like tech gear—they get worse with age and sometimes become totally obsolete. [Read more…]