What’s So Cool about Greek Apocryphal Gospels?

You may have seen an announcement for a new Pre-Pub called Greek Apocryphal Gospels, Fragments and Agrapha.

Yes, that’s a mouthful. But what are they? And are these things actually useful to me in my study?

I think they are, and I’m pretty excited about working on this project.

These documents are not canonical. Some of them are just fragments that were found in dumps of papyri. But they give us insight into how early Christians dealt with their faith, how they told others about things they’d heard, and how they interacted with the myriad of stories and tales they were hearing about this guy Jesus and his disciples. These documents also teach us more about the Greek the early church used. Just think, something useful for historical studies and grammatical studies!

This resource includes gospels, which means it centers on things that tell the story of Jesus. Different people see different kinds of these gospels. I include three basic different types:

  • Infancy Gospels. These include stories about Jesus’ youth and even earlier. The Protevangelium of James includes a much fuller story about Mary and Joseph with all sorts of details (even about Mary’s midwife) that are not canonical by any stretch, but insightful nonetheless.
  • Passion Gospels. These are gospels about the trial, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. They have similarities with the canonical gospels, but include expansions and embellishments as well.
  • Post-resurrection Gospels. The Greek extant for the Gospel of Mary is fragmentary, but insightful; one of the available fragments has a snippet of a story where Peter turns to Mary and asks her to relate what she knows of Jesus.

There are also fragments of apocryphal gospels.  One of these, P.Egerton 2, is fantastic. It consists of a few fragments, but these compile in short succession a number of events that are easily recognizable in the canonical gospels. Again, we get to see how early Christians understood the canonical gospels, how they framed that material, and how they used it for other purposes.

Among the coolest things, from my perspective, are the agrapha. The word technically means “unwritten”; in this context it denotes sayings that claim to originate with Jesus but aren’t in the canonical gospels as we’ve received them. Some of my favorites of these are in the Apostolic Fathers, in the written work known as Second Clement, which is the earliest complete non-canonical sermon we’ve got today. In chapter 5, there is an allusion to Matt 10.16 / Luke 10.3, but with an expansion and a twist:

2 For the Lord said, “You will be like sheep among wolves.” 3 And answering, Peter said to him, “But if the wolves tear apart the sheep?” 4 Jesus said to Peter, “The sheep have no fear of the wolves after they are dead, and you have no fear of those who kill you and who are able to do nothing more to you, but you fear him who after you are dead has power to throw soul and body into the hell of fire.” (2 Clem 5.2–4)

Whether this was really something Jesus said, we have no idea. But isn’t it interesting that it would be used in the early church (early/mid second century) in a sermon?

What is in the resource?

The resource includes morphologically analyzed Greek of each of the included gospels, fragments, and agrapha. So it will be searchable and useable much like you’d use any morphologically analyzed Greek edition (NT, LXX, Apostolic Fathers, Philo, etc.). In addition, I’ll be writing introductions and providing bibliographies for each major document and fragment. The agrapha will probably have a single introduction and bibliography.

This is pretty much the same format we used for the Old Testament Greek Pseudepigrapha with Morphology. The goal is to provide a useable Greek text and, because the material is not that familiar to many, decent introductions to each of the major documents giving some background, history, and applicability to one’s studies of the Bible.

Does that sound like fun? It does to me. If it does to you too, then order the Pre-Pub and let’s get this thing going!

Excited about this project? Leave us a comment!

An Interview with Dr. Ben Witherington III

I remember reading Conflict and Community in Corinth and enjoying it so much that I rushed out to buy and devour Grace in Galatia. Since then, the Socio-Rhetorical Commentary Series has become invaluable to my New Testament studies.

Logos recently added the 5-volume Ben Witherington III Collection to the growing list of resources available from Dr. Witherington. This collection offers sensitive insight into areas of doctrine and interpretation where discussions can become entrenched and contentious.

Some of the topics include:

  • Baptism
  • God’s sovereignty
  • Prophecy
  • Grace
  • The Lord’s Supper

After looking at the content in this collection, I was excited for the opportunity to interview Dr. Witherington.

Logos: What are the risks of reading the Scriptures through a particular dogmatic lens? Do you see any benefits?

Dr. Witherington: I honestly don’t see any benefits to reading Scripture through a dogmatic lens. Over and over again it leads to eisegesis rather than exegesis, a reading back into the text things that are not there and reflect a later era.  It’s called anachronism.

For example, I was having a conversation with a Greek Orthodox brother the other day who wanted to insist that Jesus’ dialogue with Nicodemus was about the Christian theology of baptism—”born of water and the Spirit.”  Besides the fact that historically such a conversation surely was unlikely to happen between two early Jews (after all, there was no church or Christian baptismal practice yet), there is the further problem that the very next verse explains that ‘water’ here refers to what happens at physical birth (flesh gives birth to flesh) and then Spirit is the one who produces “the new birth” or “being born again.”  The discussion is indeed about the necessity of conversion even for devout early Jews.

Logos: Many Christians are raised or educated within specific theological frameworks, each with its inherent strengths and weaknesses. Assuming that your tradition is orthodox, how do you maintain the tension of honoring your background while allowing Scripture the freedom to contradict and challenge your beliefs?

Dr. Witherington: I don’t think your primary concern should be with the theological tradition you are raised in. Your primary concern should be your faithfulness to God’s Word wherever that leads, even if it contradicts things you were taught. I think you should value your tradition but critique it in light of the Bible.

Logos: Theology often comes out of a wrestling match between the theologian, his presuppositions, and Scripture. Of the five books in the Ben Witherington III Collection, which one was the biggest wrestling match for you?

Dr. Witherington: Clearly, the most controversial one is The Problem with Evangelical Theology. In that book I argue that all Evangelical traditions are most apt to stretch Scripture or misinterpret it when they try to say something distinctive. In other words, all Evangelical traditions fall short of full conformity to Scripture—whether we are talking about Calvinism, Arminianism, Pentecostalism, Dispensationalism, or any other ism.

Logos: What part do other believers play in challenging the way we interact with Christ through Scripture? How do we stand on our convictions and challenge each other without getting contentious and divisive?

Dr. Witherington: I find it invigorating, a sort of “iron-sharpens-iron” situation, when orthodox Christians of varying views challenge and have friendly debates about things. It helps us see our strengths and weaknesses, and, if it is done in a charitable manner, can be helpful to all.  But the ruling principle is speaking what you see to be the truth in love, not in a partisan spirit. All persons who have a high view of Scripture have much to learn from each other, and we should all admit our knowledge is partial and incomplete. Humility pills should be taken all around when we discuss these things.

Logos: What projects are you currently working on?

Dr. Witherington: I am currently working on a college-level Introduction to the New Testament for Oxford University Press, and my wife and I are working on our fifth novel in our series of archaeological thrillers.  The last one came out last fall, entitled Corinthian Leather, and has been well reviewed.  The next one is called Roma Aeterna, and centers on finding the tomb of the apostles Adronicus and Junia.

Logos: Thank you Dr. Witherington for taking the time to talk to Logos Talk.

You can save nearly $60 on the Ben Witherington III Collection (5 vols.) while it’s on Pre-Pub, or check out other Ben Witherington resources on Logos today!

New Counseling Resources Are Available Individually

The Biblical Counseling Collection contains tons of practical counseling resources. We’re talking about 30 volumes by 20 authors from 12 different publishers! This is a fantastic collection of resources for both counselors and pastors.

Interested in particular volumes, but not the whole series? You’ll be happy to learn that these titles are now available separately.

If you’re looking for specific types of counseling resources, the contents of the Biblical Counseling Collection can be broken into these categories:

General Counseling

Spirituality

Life Issues

Marriage

Women’s Interests

Men’s Interests

You’re going to save more (nearly $100) by buying the whole Biblical Counseling Collection. But if you have been eyeing some of these titles separately, they are available for you to purchase today.
Curious about other collections we have recently broken up? Find out which collections are available as individual titles!

Step into Theology with This Zondervan Collection

Theology is rewarding, but often intimidating. Words like hamartiology, soteriology, and ecclesiology can be formidable hurdles to someone new to theological study. If you can relate, the Zondervan Theology Collection may be right up your alley.

The seven volumes in the Zondervan Theology Collection aren’t “beginner” theology; they are approachable books full of deep and practical theology for everyone. Whether you have been studying theology for years or you are just getting your feet wet, this collection will inform and inspire you.

The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims on the Way by Michael S. Horton is a shining example. This systematic theology proves that scholarly illumination doesn’t have to come at the expense of accessibility. This isn’t just a theological primer (the print version is over 1,000 pages); Horton unpacks all of the traditional categories of systematic theology in six parts:

  • Part 1: Knowing God: The Presupposition of Theology
  • Part 2: God Who Lives
  • Part 3: God Who Creates
  • Part 4: God Who Rescues
  • Part 5: God Who Reigns in Christ
  • Part 6: God Who Reigns in Glory

“Dr. Horton has produced a remarkable work. His approach to systematic theology is fresh and critically needed in our time. Every pilgrim will profit from this work.”—R. C. Sproul, chairman and president, Ligonier Ministries

In the Zondervan Theology Collection, scholars like Andreas KostenbergerWayne Grudem, and D. A. Carson will walk  you through the basics of the Christian faith as well as recent hot button issues.

If you want practical content by well-known scholars, the Zondervan Theology Collection belongs in your library. Place your order today while this collection is still on Pre-Pub!

Set Your Price on St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland

There’s no better time than St. Patrick’s Day to announce the two-volume St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland collection on Community Pricing.

Kidnapped from Britain by Welsh pirates at the age of 16, Patrick spent six years in Ireland as a slave. He eventually escaped and returned home where he joined the church. After spending 12 years in a monastery, Patrick felt called back to Ireland.

As Patrick remembers it:

“I saw a man coming, as it were from Ireland. His name was Victoricus, and he carried many letters, and he gave me one of them. I read the heading: ‘The Voice of the Irish.’ As I began the letter, I imagined in that moment that I heard the voice of those very people who were near the wood of Foclut, which is beside the western sea—and they cried out, as with one voice: ‘We appeal to you, holy servant boy, to come and walk among us.’ “

Almost immediately after becoming a bishop, Patrick sailed back to Ireland. He  successfully won converts among the Gaelic Irish, even converting members of royal families. He established schools, set up churches, and developed clergy from among the natives who helped him to win even more converts.

For more than 600 years, missionaries from Ireland carried the gospel all around Europe, setting up missions in Scotland, Britain, Germany, Switzerland, and beyond. Throughout some of Europe’s darkest years, Patrick’s legacy shone bright.

Soon you’ll be able to add St. Patrick’s autobiography and writings to your Logos library. And with Community Pricing, you decide how much you want to pay. Place your bid on the St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland (2 vols.) today!

The Princeton Theological Review Is Now on Community Pricing

Just in time to commemorate the 200th anniversary of Princeton Theological Seminary’s founding, 443 issues of the original Princeton Theological Review are on Community Pricing!

Charles Hodge started this premier Christian journal in 1825 and its first run lasted over 100 years. Its contributors list reads like a theologian’s who’s who:

The Princeton Theological Journal has covered some of the most important subjects facing Christianity, including: evolution, slavery, biblical inerrancy, and education. The articles and authors are still widely cited today. Now Logos users can own every issue of The Princeton Theological Journal produced from 1825 to 1929. That’s 443 issues packed with theological insight from some of the nineteenth and twentieth century’s top Christian scholars. And with Logos, you can search each issue by topic, Scripture reference, or author.

You set the price!

It’s up to you. We’re putting this on Community Pricing, where you set the price. After you place your bid, there are all kinds of ways to get others on board and lower the price!

  • “Like” it on Facebook.
  • Tweet it.
  • Discuss it in the forums.
  • Email it to your friends and coworkers.
  • Write the link on a whiteboard at school.
  • Add a screenshot to your Pinterest board.
  • Make and wear a sandwich board.

The more people that get on board, the lower the price can go, so place your bid for The Princeton Theological Journal (443 issues) today!

Find Out Which Collections Are Available Individually!

Did you know that we occasionally break up collections and sell volumes individually? We do! In fact, here are a couple recent examples:

We are even in the process of splitting up Tabletalk (Feb. 1989–Jan. 2011) (264 Issues)!

How Can I Find Out When a Collection Is Broken Up?

While we don’t always announce the splitting up of a collection, there are ways to make sure you’re in the loop.

You can often get updated on recently broken collections in the forum thread, “Hey! they just broke this collection up!” The forum is an invaluable tool for all sorts of important information; if you haven’t gotten involved in the forums yet, don’t wait! This thread is updated semi-regularly. You can even subscribe to an RSS feed for this thread by clicking the
“Email me when someone replies” link at the top.

A quick way to see what new titles are available is to simply do an Individual Titles search on Logos.com and sort by newest. This is going to give you the latest resources—including  those which were recently in collections.

A Couple Things to Keep in Mind

More often than not, buying a collection offers the best value. A good example of this is the Brill Josephus and History Collection. This two-volume collection normally costs $309.95. If you were to buy these two titles separately, you would pay over $450. If you can manage it, you’re going to get a better deal when you purchase a collection.

Another thing we should point out is that occasional issues (like licensing) preclude us from being able to break up every collection. But if there are some collections you would like to see broken up which haven’t been, head over to Facebook and tell us which ones. We would love to have your input!

Now go check out some of the new resources we have available—and add a few to your library today!

J. Gresham Machen: Guardian of the Faith

From 1905 to 1937, J. Gresham Machen grew from a confused young theology student to one of the leading Reformed scholars of his day.

At first, Machen struggled with the liberal leanings of his professor, Wilhelm Herrman, but he  eventually rejected modernist theology and embraced conservative Reformed thought. This shift in doctrine would direct his path for the rest of his life.

Machen became the professor of New Testament studies at Princeton Seminary, where he taught for 14 years. During his tenure, he was a strong proponent of conservative theology. As modernist theology began to make inroads on the university’s curriculum, Machen left Princeton to found the Westminster Theological Seminary. He taught at Westminster until his death in 1937.

The seven volumes in the J. Gresham Machen Collection not only give valuable insight into the twentieth century struggle for orthodoxy, they also provide solid theological training for today.

The Origin of Paul’s Religion was written as a direct response to scholars who believed the apostle Paul distorted the message of Jesus. To the modernist, the focus on the Resurrection instead of the ethical teachings of Jesus deviated from the central point of the Gospel. Machen’s response firmly asserted the historicity and power of Paul’s message.

American religious critic Harold Bloom said of Christianity and Liberalism“I have never seen a stronger case made for the argument that institutional Christianity must regard cultural liberalism an enemy of faith.”

The J. Gresham Machen Collection (7 vols.) is currently under development. If you act now, you can add Machen’s teaching to your library for nearly 70% off.

Get the Big Picture with the Zondervan Reference Collection

One of my favorite Bible teachers encouraged us to “study wide and then narrow our focus.” Understanding the big picture is key to good exegesis. It protects us from falling into the trap of interpreting verses before appreciating the context of the book, chapter, and pericope being studied.

With this principle in mind, I give you the Zondervan Reference Collection. These six volumes will help provide context  for your studies. With two dictionaries, an atlas, a Bible dictionary, a companion to Psalms, and a look at life during biblical times, you’ll have the big-picture foundation needed for better Bible study.

This collection includes essential helps for every Bible reader, springboarding beginners into better Bible study and providing rich tools that seasoned scholars will use again and again.

Pick up this collection while it’s on Pre-Pub and you’ll get these six volumes for less than $100—that’s a savings of nearly $50!

Leave us a comment and tell us about some of your favorite handbooks, dictionaries, or atlases!

At Long Last! Ceslas Spicq’s “The Epistle to the Hebrews” Will Be Translated

These are exciting times for Bible students, especially those who have studied the Epistle to the Hebrews. Logos is creating the first English translation of Ceslas Spicq’s two-volume commentary on Hebrews.

Originally published in French as L’ Épître aux Hébreux, Spicq’s commentary contains a wealth of citations and interaction with both primary sources as well as key commentators on Hebrews. But unless you read French (and own one of the rare copies), this commentary can’t help you. Now, however, you can pre-order your own copy—in English!

Who is Ceslas Spicq?

You’ve never heard of Ceslas Spicq (1901–1992)? That’s understandable, as most of his writings have not been translated into English. Spicq was a theology professor at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland. He was also connected with the acclaimed École Biblique in Jerusalem. He authored a number of important commentaries, monographs, and a three-volume lexicon, Lexique théologique du Nouveau Testament, which was subsequently translated into English as the Theological Lexicon of the New Testament.

Why is this project important?

Spicq’s work is heavily referenced in almost every major commentary on Hebrews published after his!

The following chart highlights seven major commentaries and the number of times Spicq is referenced:

P. E. Hughes 152
F. F. Bruce (NICNT) 57
Harold Attridge (Hermeneia) 307
Craig Koester (AYBC) 269
Paul Ellingworth (NIGTC) 402
George Guthire (NIVAC) 32
Peter O’Brien (PNTC) 102
Total 1321

As you can see, scholarly interaction with Spicq is quite high. This chart doesn’t take into consideration the hundreds of times L’ Épître aux Hébreux has been mentioned in journal articles, monographs, and essays since Spicq’s commentary was published.

One of the more controversial sections features Spicq’s understanding of the relationship between Philo and the Hebrews author. In a section entitled “Le Philonisme de L’Épitre aux Hébreux (The Philonism of the Epistle to the Hebrews)”, Spicq spends 52 pages analyzing the vocabulary of Hebrews and the writings of Philo, paronomasia and metaphors they share, and an exegesis of select texts. While most modern scholars have put this thesis to rest; Ellingworth rightly notes, “it is not necessary . . . to reject as worthless or insignificant the linguistic and other evidence accumulated by Spicq” (Hebrews, 47).

Among Spicq’s greatest contributions are his detailed studies on the language and literary characteristics of Hebrews. This includes 27 pages of lexical and literary analysis. Spicq analyzes not only individual words, but also phrases unique to Hebrews.

Take it from the experts!

Still unsure about Ceslas Spicq? Here’s what leading scholars say about how important Ceslas Spicq’s commentary on Hebrews is:

“[Spicq’s] work on the Epistle to the Hebrews is a monument of dedicated piety and erudition.”—Philip E. Hughes, author of A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews.

“Spicq’s commentary represented a major advance in the study of Hebrews. Exegetically thorough and theologically reflective, Spicq’s work influenced scholarly work on Hebrews in many languages for several decades. It remains an important resource for those who wish to mine the treasures of Hebrews.”—David Peterson, senior research fellow and lecturer in New Testament, Moore College

“I am delighted that someone is taking time to translate this classic work, which nearly all scholars who work in Hebrews references. Thank you for taking the time to provide an English translation for subsequent students to use in their study of the book.”—Herbert Bateman, professor of New Testament, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary

Who will translate?

Once we have enough orders, we will confirm and announce who will be working on the translation.

Pre-order your copy now!

We are placing Spicq on Pre-Pub for only $39.95! That’s an almost unbelievable price, considering that the two-volume French edition is virtually impossible to find. I was fortunate to get a copy of the first volume, and it cost twice as much as both volumes on Pre-Pub.

Once we have enough to cover the cost for translation and production, the work begins. Order your copy today!