Search Results for: 4.18

Logos Tech Tip | What Does It Mean to ‘Walk’?

Walking is a biblical metaphor for the way Christians are to live. However, walking was also the most common mode of travel in biblical times. That means if you search for “walk,” you will find all of these instances. [Read more…]

3 Things You Need to Know to Rightly Handle Philemon

By Robert Kinney

Though often passed over as short and insignificant, Paul’s letter to Philemon might actually be the perfect message for a moment in history consumed with questions of identity and self-realization, social justice, the assertion of rights, and mercy. More importantly, it presents an opportunity to apply the gospel—the essential and authentic gospel as Paul understands it—to these difficult concepts. [Read more…]

Studying the Dead Sea Scrolls Just Got Easier

Dead Sea ScrollsThe Qumran Sectarian Manuscripts (QSM) collection is a tagged database of all the nonbiblical scrolls found at Qumran—the Temple Scroll, the War Scroll, the Damascus Document, the Rule of the Community, and over 700 other scrolls. These documents provide invaluable information about Judaism in the Second Temple period.

It’s been over 10 years since we first offered this database in Libronix DLS, and much has changed—both in the contents of the QSM database and in how Logos supports Hebrew and Aramaic databases generally. We wanted to take the opportunity to get the latest data and bring this incredible tool up to our current standards.

The result: QSM just got a major update! 

What’s new

It’s never been easier to study the Dead Sea Scrolls in the original Hebrew and Aramaic. Improvements in this release include:

  • More than 100 new scrolls, bringing the total to 737 documents.
  • Reorganization: several of the previously released scrolls have been reorganized to match the latest scholarship on how to reconstruct larger works from individual pieces.
  • Textual searches: QSM now shows up in the Textual Searches section of the Bible Word Study guide, making it easy to find instances of words from the Hebrew Bible in the Dead Sea Scrolls. This feature returns the best hits when running Bible Word Study directly from the Westminster database (BHW 4.18), since no data-type conversion is required, but it also works from several other Hebrew Bibles.
  • English glosses: the glossary now includes every word in the database, while the older version only had entries for those words not found in the Hebrew Bible. In addition, QSM now glosses the text on mouse hover and populates the word-selector dropdowns in various reports and search interfaces, making it easy to select the word you want.
  • Improved navigation: now it’s possible to quickly navigate to individual scrolls, columns, or fragments, instead of just to specific lines in the scrolls.
  • Improved Dead Sea Scrolls tagging: in commentaries and other reference works, we’ve tagged Dead Sea Scrolls citations with references to Brill’s Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (DSSSE), which includes English translations and transcriptions of the most important scrolls, as well as complete bibliographic data. In this release, we’ve added a mapping of the DSSSE datatype to QSM, making it easier to link and scroll those resources together and making it possible to jump directly from tagged Dead Sea Scrolls references in your library directly to the QSM database without having to own or open DSSSE. The Brill volumes have also been updated to improve their linking with QSM and with each other.
  • Morphology update: the implementation of the morphology codes has been updated to function alongside the improvements made to the Westminster data types for the release of BHW 4.18, making it easy to search for morphological features across the scrolls and the Hebrew Bible at the same time.

Get yours today

If you already own the old version of QSM, you’ll receive this update automatically. (If you haven’t gotten your update update, just type “update resources” into the command bar and Logos will download it.)

If you don’t already have these important documents, get yours today!

Get the Latest Westminster Hebrew Morphology for 50% Off!

BHW 2.18The latest version of the Westminster Hebrew Morphology, version 4.18, is now available. This marks our first upgrade of this significant database since version 4.2, released in 2004, and represents nearly a decade of improvements and corrections.

Already own the WHM? Get the update free

If you’ve been working with the old version 4.2, and you have your Logos Bible Software set to receive automatic updates, you might already have the new version, which was sent out as a free update for users of the 4.0/4.2 versions. Look for it under the new title: Biblia Hebraica Westmonasteriensis with Westminster Hebrew Morphology 4.18. (The version numbers aren’t decimals—think of 4.2 as version 2 of the fourth edition, and 4.18 as version 18.) The older releases were misnamed as Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia—version 1 of WHM was the text of BHS, but ever since version 2, this database has moved toward being a more accurate transcription of Codex Leningradensis (L), the oldest complete Hebrew Bible and the textual basis of the BHS and many other editions. The WHM has detailed notes about every place where it reads or corrects L differently than the BHS and the published fascicles of BHQ, making it very useful for comparing the finer points of these popular print editions.

New to the WHM? Get it for 50% off!

If you haven’t used the Westminster Hebrew Morphology, now’s the time to start—through December 2, we’ve cut the price of the new edition in half.

In addition to the textual notes already mentioned, you’ll get complete lexical and morphological analysis of every Hebrew and Aramaic word in the Bible. These tags help you identify the form of each word and its function in the sentence; they also facilitate advanced searching. WHM also includes both the Kethiv and the Qere readings, in which the text to be read aloud is different from the written text, and a reconstruction and analysis of the Kethiv readings, which by their nature lack vowels in the manuscript of L.

One of the most accurate morph databases available

The Westminster Hebrew Morphology, one of the first Hebrew Bible databases made widely available, has benefited from an enormous quantity of feedback from scholars and students. The editors at the J. Alan Groves Center for Advanced Biblical Research (formerly the Westminster Hebrew Institute) have developed an impressive issue-tracking database to store reports and discussions of proposed changes, which helps maintain consistency and prevent regression errors. The user feedback and the editors’ hard work have created one of the most accurate morph databases available—one that gets better with every release.

In addition, the WHM tags many features not found in most other databases. Starting with version 4.12, for instance, it’s been tagging “unexpected forms”—for example, pronominal suffixes that appear at first glance to be feminine, but that context demands be read as masculine (a phenomenon that happens most often with words accented to indicate a “pause” in the verse). It also labels other morphological characteristics mentioned in advanced Hebrew grammars, such as the “energic nun,” making it easier to understand what’s going on with relatively rare word forms.

Get 50% off the latest version of the Westminster Hebrew Morphology today!

Syntax Searching and Epistolary Form Criticism: Request/Petition Form

Read the first three posts in this series: 1 | 2 | 3.

1Co 1.10 offers an example of the Request/Petition form.


Request/Petition Form in 1Co 1.10

Description of Form
There is much debate between White and Mullins on this form. Smith, as the latest writer to review the debate, gets the last word. He sides with Mullins, thus Mullins’ formulation (as described by Smith) will be evaluated here. Smith writes:

According to Mullins, the petition form has three basic elements: the background, the petition verb, and the desired action and optionally the address (i.e. to whom the petition is directed) and the courtesy phrase (i.e. a form of ἔαν σοι δόξη, ‘if it seems good to you’). The background includes the recital of information which the petitioner deems necessary for the official to know so that the official will decide in the petitioner’s favour. The petition verb, which is always in the first person and the present tense, reflects the petitioner’s concern that the official act on his behalf. the typical verbs used are ἀξιοῦν, δεῖσθαι, ἐρωτᾶν and παρακαλεῖν. The desired action outlines the request of the petitioner, that is, what he wants the official to do on his behalf. [1]

No specific structural information is given regarding the “background” section, so this cannot be included in a structural search. The other “basic elements”, the petition verb and the desired action, can be structurally quantified.

The Form in OpenText.org SAGNT
The request/petition form involves consecutive clauses, each with different characteristics.

First Query


Structure of First Query

  • A primary clause that has either ἀξιοῦν, δεῖσθαι, ἐρωτᾶν or παρακαλεῖν as its predicator in the first person and present tense. The verb is a first-person present indicative. This clause has a complement (or perhaps an adjunct) with an embedded clause. The predicator of the embedded clause is an infinitive verb. An example is found in Lu 9.38.

Second Query


Structure of Second Query

  • A primary clause that has either ἀξιοῦν, δεῖσθαι, ἐρωτᾶν or παρακαλεῖν as its predicator in the first person and present tense. The verb is to be a first-person present active indicative.
  • A primary or secondary clause follows. This primary clause has an second person verb in the indicative, imperative or subjunctive mood as its predicator. An example is found in Ac 21.39.

Third Query


Structure of Third Query

  • A primary clause that has either ἀξιοῦν, δεῖσθαι, ἐρωτᾶν or παρακαλεῖν as its predicator in the first person and present tense. The verb is to be a first-person present active indicative.
  • A secondary clause follows. This clause contains a subordinate clause indicated by the conjunctions ἵνα, γὰρ or ὅπως.[2] An example is found in 2Th 3.12. Note that other secondary clauses may intervene between the primary clause and the subordinate clause (e.g. Phm 10).

Mullins reports the following instances of the Petition Form: Lu 8.28; 9.38; 14.18-19; 16.27; Ac 8.34; 21.39; 26.3; 28.22; Ro 12.1; 16.17; 1Co 1.10; 16.15; 2Co 2.8; 6.1; 10.1, 2; Ga 4.12; Eph 4.1; Php 4.2, 3; 1Th 4.1, 10; 5.12; 2Th 2.1; 3.12; 1Ti 2.1; Phm 9, 10; Heb 13.19; 22; 1Pe 2.11; 5.1.[3]

  • Instances from Mullins located by the First Query: Lu 9.38; Ac 26.3; 28.22; Ro 12.1; 16.17; 2Co 2.8; 6.1; 10.2; Eph 4.1-3; Php .4.2; 1Th 4.10-11; 5.12-13; 2Th 2.1; 1Ti 2.1-2; 1Pe 2.11-12.
  • Extras located in First Query: Ac 24.4; 27.34; Ro 15.30.
  • Instances from Mullins located by the Second Query:[4] Lu 8.28; Lu 14.18-19; Lu 16.27; Ac 21.39; Ro 12.1-2; 16.17; 1Co 1.10; 16.15; 2Co 5.20; Ga 4.12; Php 4.3; 1Th 4.1; 5.12-13, 14; Heb 13.22
  • Extras located in Second Query: Jn 17.15
  • Instances from Mullins located by the Third Query: Lu 16.27; 1Co 1.10; 1Th 4.1, 10-12; 2Th 3.12; 1Ti 2.1-2; Phm 10-13; Heb 13.19; 1Pe 2.11-12.
  • Extras located in Third Query: Jn 17.15; Ro 15.30-32; 2Jn 5
  • Instances missed by all three queries: Ac 8.34; 1Pe 5.1.

In the instances missed by the queries, the syntax is not as easily ascertained as in the others. In Ac 8.34, the substance of the desired action is not stated at all; it is implied by asking a question—a question that is formally three short clauses. The petition, then, is to answer the question; it is not explicitly stated at all. In 1Pe 5.1, a complex verbless clause consisting of a subject with embedded participles intervenes between the petition verb and the desired action (stated in a primary clause with an imperative verb).

Alternate Query


Structure of Alternate Query

An alternate method would be to simply find where a present tense, singular form of the petition verb occurs as the predicator of a primary clause. These would logically have a high probability of being examples of the petition form.

This method, completed in a single search, locates all of the instances supplied by Mullins. The query additionally locates the following false positives: Jn 17.9, 15, 20; Ac 24.4; Ro 15.30; 1Co 4.13, 16; 1Th 5.14.

Bibliography

Mullins, T.Y., “Formulas in the New Testament Epistles”, JBL 91 (1972), pp. 380-390.
———, “Petition as a Literary Form”, NovT 5 (1962), pp. 46-52.
Smith, C.A., Timothy’s Task, Paul’s Prospect: A New Reading of 2 Timothy (Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2006). pp. 10,
White, J.L., “Introductory Formulae in the Body of the Pauline Letter”, JBL 90 (1971), pp. 91-97.
———, The Form and Structure of the Official Petition (Missoula, MT: Society of Biblical Literature, 1972).

Notes
[1] Smith, 47.
[2] White 1971, p. 93.
[3] Mullins 1962, p. 54. Note that Mullins has two typos. “2 Corinthians XX 2” should be “2 Corinthians X 2” and “2 Corinthians V 20; V 1” should be “2 Corinthians V 20; VI 1”.
[4] These instances include overlapping matches between all three queries; this is not a unique list.