Greek Syntax: First Thessalonians 4:16, Part III

I’ve blogged a few times about 1Th 4.16 and the prepositional phrase εν Χριστω (see here and here).

1Th 4.16

But there’s more to talk about.
One thing that could be handy is searching for when the prepositional object (Χριστω) is articular, and when it is anarthrous. Our initial search for the prepositional phrase found both articular and anarthrous instances.
But in tracking how εν Χριστω functions, it may be necessary to consider articular and anarthrous instances separately. With syntax searching, you can do this. I’ve created a video that starts with the basic search for the prepositional phrase and adjusts it to first locate articular instances (so, εν τω Χριστω) and then to locate anarthrous instances (εν Χριστω) .

An Inside Look at Logos

At our annual Christmas party this past Saturday, we officially launched a brand new video about Logos—not a demo of the product, but an inside look at the company, the people, the vision. In our continued effort to let you get to know us, we wanted to give you a chance to be some of the first people outside of the company to watch it. You’ll learn interesting tidbits about the company, meet many of the department heads and others, find out the verdict on the proper pronunciation of Logos, and get the inside scoop on the next major release of the software. We hope you enjoy it!
(If you are viewing this in a feed reader or email and the video doesn’t appear below, visit the site to watch it.)


Update: You can also watch this video at YouTube.

Coral Ridge Ministries Partners with Logos Bible Software


We are pleased to announce that Coral Ridge Ministries, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, has joined with us in a brand new, strategic partnership to equip the church for better Bible study and ministry. Truths That Transform, the foundational work on practical Christian truths by the late Dr. D. James Kennedy, serves as the centerpiece of several new Truths that Transform Bible software products.
Truths That Transform Digital Learning Series 1 combines the Truths That Transform book, which covers eighteen transformational truths, with several other resources:
  • Truths That Transform Study Guide
  • 18 Audio Sermons from Dr. Kennedy on MP3
  • King James Version of the Bible
  • New King James Version of the Bible
  • A customized home page for access to specific resources

Four other Truths That Transform collections, which come bundled with the Truths That Transform Digital Learning Series 1, are available:

  • Truths That Transform Bible Study Library
  • Truths That Transform Scholar’s Library
  • Truths That Transform Scholar’s Library: Silver
  • Truths That Transform Scholar’s Library: Gold

These collections bring together the some of the best insights from the fruitful ministry of Dr. D. James Kennedy and the power and breadth of Logos Bible Software. Take the tour to see it for yourself, and watch Brian Fisher, President and CEO of Coral Ridge Ministries, talk about these great new products.
Live on GodTube!
Finally, don’t miss the LIVE Internet-Only Broadcast on Monday, December 17, at 8 pm EST on GodTube.com. Brian Fisher will be talking with Scott Lindsey from Logos Bible Software about the exciting new ways to study the Bible using the revolutionary new Truths That Transform Digital Library System. Be sure to watch! Find out more.

2007 Logos Bake-Off

You’ve probably learned by now from our posts about Chili Cook-Offs (2007, 2006), Curry Cook-Offs (2007, 2006), Soup Cook-Offs (2006, 2005), Salsa Cook-Offs (2006), Bake-Offs (2006), and Thanksgiving Dinners (2007, 2006) that we like to eat! This is just one of the many reasons that working here is so much fun!
Last Friday we had the 2007 Logos Bake-Off. There were 12 entrants and lots of hungry judges! Here they are in action.

While everything was delicious, four desserts rose to the top.
Here are the winners:
1st Place: Don and Tara Everett’s “Chocolate Everything” creation (#12)


2nd Place: Katie Swanson’s Coconut Cream Cake (#6)


3rd Place: Pete and Shara Heiniger’s Chocolate Bundt Cake (#8)


and: Deborah Mickens’ Eggnog Butterscotch Cookies (#9)

We also have one recipe to share. While it’s not one that placed, it’s still sure to please.
Chocolate Star Cookies
by Ryan Husser
Components:

  • ½ cup peanut butter
  • ½ cup granulated sugar
  • ½ cup brown sugar
  • ½ cup (1 stick) butter or margarine
  • 1 egg
  • 1 ¾ cups flour
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • ½ teaspoon salt
  • 2 tablespoons milk
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla
  • About ½ cup addition granulated sugar in separate bowl
  • About 60 Brach’s chocolate stars (available in bulk at Fred Meyer)

Assembly:

  1. Preheat oven to 375° (190 Celsius).
  2. Cream butter and sugars (granulated and brown) in large mixing bowl.
  3. Mix in peanut butter and egg.
  4. Mix in flour, baking soda, salt, milk and vanilla.
  5. Roll dough by hand into ½ inch balls.
  6. Roll dough balls in additional granulated sugar.
  7. Bake for 4 minutes.
  8. Remove from oven, press a chocolate star into the middle of each cookie.
  9. Bake for another 3–4 minutes.

Recipe yields approximately 5 dozen cookies.

Christmas Deals from Logos!

Logos has a couple of Christmas specials this year that you’ll definitely want to check out.
Base Packages
First, we are offering 25% off on all of our base packages. If you’ve been saving up your money for Scholar’s Library: Gold, now is the ideal time to get a great price on the best collection of Bible software on the planet. Make sure to use the christmas2007 coupon code, but it should be automatically applied for you when you click “Add to Cart” or “Buy Now!” For those of you who are upgrading from one base package to another, we are giving you a 15% discount.
Library Builder: Volumes 4-6
Second, due to the incredible response from last year’s Christmas special, Library Builder: Volumes 1-3, we have decided to create Library Builder: Volumes 4-6. This massive collection of 300 resources is worth more than $6100 in print editions! We are offering it for a very limited time for only $399.95! That’s a savings of more than 93%! After December 31, 2007, this product will be permanently discontinued. You may never again have the opportunity to get most of these resources at such incredibly low prices.
While some of you may already be compelled to buy this great collection of resources based on the discount alone, most of you want to see the list of included resources first.
Collections Included
But before you check it out, perhaps highlighting a few of the collections that you will get will be sufficient to show you how great a deal this really is. Take, for example, the International Theological Commentary (27 Volumes), which we sell for $529.95. The inclusion of this one set all by itself makes purchasing Library Builder: Volumes 4-6 a good deal; and when you consider that for $130 less you are getting 273 more books, it becomes a tremendous deal!
If that’s not enough to convince you, consider that you are also getting these 10 collections:

For just these 11 collections, you’d pay $2054.45 if you bought them on sale individually. If you were planning to buy even a couple of these, you’d be far better off buying Library Builder: Volumes 4-6.
Some Top Individual Volumes Included
If you’re still unconvinced, we’ve also included a number of very solid individual volumes, which are available in no other collections, from publishers like Bethany House, Christian Focus, Crossway, Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, Eerdmans, IVP, Jewish Publication Society, Kregel, Paternoster, SPCK, T&T Clark, and more:

These 22 titles alone would cost you $439.95 if you bought them on sale! That’s $40 more than the price of the entire Library Builder: Volumes 4-6, which includes 278 additional titles! Convinced yet?
Figure out what you already have, and do the math for yourself. Then join the hundreds of others who agree that this deal is just too good to pass up.
By the way, we mean it when we say that this collection will be permanently discontinued at the end of 2007. Last year dozens of people called desperately wanting to buy Library Builder: Volumes 1-3 after the deadline. Unfortunately, we had to turn them away. Don’t let this be you come January. Place your order for Library Builder: Volumes 4-6.

The Value of Custom Resource Associations

Two weeks ago I talked a little bit about the value of collections. To summarize, collections have two primary functions:

  1. They allow you to organize and group your books together so that they are easier to find in My Library. For example, you have a systematic theology kind of question, and you can’t remember all of the systematic theology books that you have. You could just type “Systematic Theology” in My Library, but then you’d miss Shedd’s Dogmatic Theology and many others. You could try the broader “Theology,” but then you’d probably get a lot more books than you’re really looking for (like all of the journals with “Theology” in the title) and you’d miss a book like Henry’s God, Revelation and Authority. If you create a Systematic Theology collection, you’d be able to view your entire list of available Systematic Theology resources without missing any and without weeding through resources that don’t belong.
  2. They also allow you to improve the way you search. Searching collections is the ideal way to search for two reasons: accuracy and speed. (1) You’ll get hits that are more likely to address your question without having to wade through lots of false hits, and (2) your search will take far less time than if you are searching your entire library.

Resource Associations
Today I’d like to talk about the value of custom resource associations. I’ve found that many users don’t know what resource associations are, how they differ from collections, what value they have, or how to set them up. I hope that the remainder of this post will help to provide some answers to questions like these.
A resource association is simply a grouping of resources that enables you to navigate easily to similar resources. There are two kinds: serial and parallel.
Serial Resource Associations
A serial resource association groups books in the same series, like commentaries in the WBC or PNTC. So if you are looking at Genesis 15:6 in Wenham’s commentary in the WBC and want to jump to Romans 4:3 in the same series to read Dunn’s comments, you can simply type Rom 4:3 in the reference box in the top left hand corner, and it will take you to the Romans commentary in the same series. Think of a serial resource association as making many resources in a series function like one big resource. For the most part, serial resource associations come included with products. You won’t normally need to create any of your own.
Parallel Resource Associations
A parallel resource association groups books that cover the same basic content. For example, you might create a resource association for all of your English Bibles, all of your Greek New Testaments, all of your commentaries on Romans, all of your Hebrew grammars, all of your Apostolic Fathers texts, etc. This allows you to jump to one of these similar resources to compare with just two mouse clicks. I find this incredibly handy for those times when I go straight to a commentary instead of running a full Passage Guide report. By clicking on the Parallel Resources button, you will get a drop down list of the other books in your association.


So here I’m looking at Galatians 3:6 in Betz’ commentary in the Hermeneia series. Clicking on The New American Commentary: Galatians will take me to the same location in George’s commentary. (You can also use your right and left arrow keys to scroll through this list, but I find that using the parallel resources button is much quicker because you can go immediately to the one you want.)
The value of using your own parallel resource associations is that only the resources that you choose will appear, making the list targeted and customized to the way you study—and they are only two clicks away.
Defining Custom Resource Associations
Setting them up is simple to do. First, make sure you have the Power Tools Addin installed (read about or watch how to download it for free). Next, click on Tools > Library Management > Define Resource Associations. Select Parallel, and then click New. I recommend sorting by Title and checking the Unlocked Resources Only box. Add all of the resources that you want in your resource association, and order them however you want (e.g., alphabetically or in order of priority). Click OK and Close, and you’re ready to use your new resource association. Create as many as you want. For more information, see the article “Define Resource Associations” in the Libronix DLS Power Tools Addin Help resource or search for it in Libronix DLS Help (F1 or Help > Libronix DLS Help). Also, check out the “Customize Your New Digital Library” training video. The applicable portion is 14:53–18:31.
Now navigating from one resource to the next will be easier than ever.
Two things you should be aware of as you create your custom parallel resource associations:
  1. A resource can be in only one parallel resource association.
  2. Adding a resource to a custom resource association will override the default associations.

Greek Syntax: First Thessalonians 4:16, Part II

A few days back, I posted an article about 1Th 4.16, specifically on using syntax searching to find all instances of the prepositional phrase εν Χριστω. And that is helpful, but it isn’t the whole story.

1Th 4.16

Today’s article will build on that previous article. In the previous article, I discussed how one can find instances of prepositional phrases that modify a verb; so, adverbial instances of prepositional phrases. What can be more interesting, particularly when attempting to discern what is going on with a particular prepositional phrase such as occurs in 1Th 4.16, is to do some searching that examines how the prepositional phrase stands in relationship to the syntactic items around it.
So today’s article will use the same basic concept to find instances of εν Χριστω that modify the clausal verb; but we’ll look for where the prepositional phrase precedes the verb; for where it follows the verb, and if it occurs modifying a supplied verb.

prepositional phrase functioning adverbally

Because it is easier to show than document in writing, I’ve created a video that walks through these searches.

Why is this important? Well, in examining 1Th 4.16′s use of εν Χριστω, you’ll notice that there are two strong possibilities for the prepositional phrase. It can either attach to the subject οι νεκροι, or it can attach to the verb αναστησονται. In 1Th 4.16, the verb follows the prepositional phrase. One strategy, then, is to look for analogues (similar instances). Where else does the verb follow the prepositional phrase? And where it does, what else is going on in those verses syntactically?
That won’t give the whole answer; but it may help in getting there. And syntax searching isn’t just searching for words, or collocations of words, or even collocations of words with some morphological data thrown in — it is searching for relationships between words, and for relationships between higher-level syntactic components (such as subjects, predicators, and the like).
In this case, we’ve specified relationships between words to define the structure that represents the prepositional phrase εν Χριστω (which is why syntax searches implicitly locate items like εν γαρ Χριστω even though postpositives are not explicitly accounted for in the search) and we’ve also specified structures that specify relationships between clause components (the predicator and the component containing the prepositional phrase).
We’ve been able to sift our hits with (relatively) little effort and, more importantly, with precision. These different search results, then, can help us walk through like structures, looking for analogues that may shed some light on how to determine whether or not εν Χριστω in 1Th 4.16 is functioning adverbially or adjectivally.

External Linking to Libronix Resources and Reports

A very handy and unfortunately very underused feature in the Libronix Digital Library System is the ability to link to resources from external documents (like Word documents and PDFs) and web pages. This functionality is part of the Power Tools Addin (Tools > Options > Power Tools). If you don’t already have it, you can read about or watch how to download it for free.
Libronix allows for a much better hyperlinking experience than the web does. When you link to a web page, you usually can’t link to a specific location on that page.* For example, if you wanted someone to read a certain portion of Van Til’s “Why I Believe in God” at Reformed.org, you would have to direct him to go to the fourth section, third paragraph, etc. Not horrible, but not ideal.
In Libronix we provide far greater power and specificity in linking. You can link to a variety of different things:
(Note: These links may not work properly in all feed readers. Visit the site to try them out.)

  • Book: like the ESV
  • Page: like page 25 of The Moody Handbook of Theology
  • Topic: like “Trinity” in the New Bible Dictionary or λόγος in BDAG (a little buggy in IE)
  • Verse: like John 1:18 in the Holman Christian Standard Bible
  • Exact Location: like this quote from Charles Hodge’s Systematic Theology

And that’s not all. I just learned, thanks to Sean Boisen’s blog post “Libronix Links As Knowledge Resources,” that you can even link to most reports! So you can take someone directly to—and even run for them—any of these:

How cool is that?! And most of these links will even preserve preferences like version choice, etc. where applicable!
Some of you are already thinking of all the ways you can make use of this. Others of you might still be wondering how this would come in handy. Let me suggest a few ways:

  1. Include links to resources and reports in your digital teaching materials. If you use a computer while you teach, this will save you time by allowing you to look up sources and run reports more quickly giving you more time to spend actually teaching.
  2. Include links to resources and reports in your digital syllabi. Many universities and seminaries are now distributing syllabi as Word documents or PDFs. Having Libronix links in your material will make learning more efficient—and fun!
  3. Include links to resources and reports in your papers. This is helpful if you share your papers with others via your website or some other way digitally. If they use Libronix, they’ll be able to run down your footnotes. But perhaps it will be of most help to you. If you want to look up one of your sources to double check something or recheck the data behind your conclusion, it’s just a click away. My dissertation is full of thousands of hidden Libronix links.
  4. Include links to resources and reports in your blog posts. I regularly link to my Libronix library when blogging (e.g., see the notes section in this post).

So how do you create a link? It’s very simple. Open a resource to the location to which you want to link, click Favorites in the menu bar, then click Copy Location to Clipboard (or just use the keyboard shortcut Alt+Ctrl+C). Create your hyperlink, and you’re all set. It works the same way with most reports.
Here are a couple of articles where you can find more information about external linking to Libronix resources:

One warning about external linking and web browsers: Internet Explorer and Firefox don’t handle Libronix encoding the same way, so you may occasionally run into trouble with more complicated links (e.g., spaces are particularly problematic). A link may work in one browser but not another. In addition, Internet Explorer struggles with Greek and Hebrew, but Firefox tends to handle them properly. You shouldn’t have trouble with the simpler links, and we’re working on ways to get browsers to behave properly with the more complicated ones.
* I say usually because some pages have anchors built into them, which allows you to link to a specific section of the page, but most pages don’t have anchors and most people don’t know how to find anchor text or how to link to it.

Greek Syntax: First Thessalonians 4:16

[NB: The update at the bottom of the article is new; if you've found this article useful please review it. Thanks! — Rick]
The most recent issue of the SBL’s Journal of Biblical Literature (vol 126, no 3) has an article entitled “The Syntax of εν Χριστω in 1 Thessalonians 4:16″ (pp. 579-593). SBL members are able to download the article from the Society of Biblical Literature web site.
The article’s authors, David Konstan and Ilaria Ramelli, examine the question of whether or not the prepositional phrase εν Χριστω (“in Christ”) attaches to the clause subject (οι νεκροι, “the dead”) or to the clause verb (αναστησονται, “will rise”).
Why is this important? Basically the question the authors seek to answer is whether it is more appropriate to translate the clause “the dead in Christ will rise” or “the dead will rise in Christ”; important to the authors as they state:

The choice between the two versions is of considerable importance. On the first interpretation, only those who have died in Christ will be resurrected, whereas the second can be taken to signify that all the dead will be resurrected in Christ—the necessary premise for the thesis of universal salvation or apocatastasis defined by Origen and other patristics writers, including Gregory of Nyssa. (580)

At this point, I think it is worth stating that the way one answers the question may allow for an interpretation of universal salvation, but it surely doesn’t dictate it. I should also note that the authors don’t say that the way one answers the question dictates interpretation; I just thought I should make that clear.
I’m not going to interact directly with the article’s argument; I just thought it would be helpful to use this as a springboard to talk some more about (surprise!) syntax searching. Because examining questions like this really is syntax searching.
The authors of the article locate all instances of the prepositional phrase (there are 84 instances)* and then work through many of them looking to see what light they shed on how the prepositional phrase is attached. Of course, if you’ve used the OpenText.org Syntactically Analyzed Greek New Testament, you know that you can at least get their reading on questions like this. Here is how they organize 1Th 4.16:

1Th 4.16

As you can see, the OpenText.org SAGNT read the prepositional phrase (εν Χριστω, “in Christ”) as modifying the noun phrase, thus “the dead in Christ.”
Next we can search to find all instances of the prepositional phrase εν Χριστω. As you can see, The OpenText.org SAGNT does not specifically mark items as prepositional phrases, but it does have consistent encoding. There are two ways that prepositional phrases are annotated, and it depends on if they are adjectival (modifying a noun) or adverbial (modifying a verb). As can be seen in the above example, when the prepositional phrase is adverbial, one has a modifier that contains a modifier that is a specifier followed by a word that is the prepositional object. This query could be expressed as follows:

εν Χριστω functioning adjectivally

Adverbial instances are different; Romans 9.1 is a good example:

Ro 9.1

Inside of the word group (wg), the head term contains the exact same structure as the modifier in the adjectival version above. This can be expressed in the Syntax Search dialog as follows:

εν Χριστω functioning adverbally

If you combine both searches with an OR, you can get a list of all of the instances of εν Χριστω to follow along and consult as you read the article.

εν Χριστω as prepositional phrase

This essentially gives you a second opinion to check out while you follow the authors’ argument. And for technical arguments like the sort made in this article; that can be helpful.


* The authors’ count is 84; however a syntax search returns 86 hits. There are two verses that have two hits apiece. First is 1Co 4.15, which has εν and Χριστω separated by a postpositive γαρ in the second hit of the verse. The other verse is Php 4.19, which has an ambiguous modification structure (εν δοξη εν Χριστω Ιησου) that causes searches to locate each εν as the basis of the hit. Therefore a Syntax Search provides evidence of 85 instances; as the authors of the article do not provide a comprehensive hit list, there is no way to tell where these lists differ. My guess is that their count is a count of verse instances (84) and not of hits (85), though they do phrase it as if the number 84 reflects instances and not number of verses in which instances are found—a subtle but important difference.
Update (2007-12-07): I’ve revisited my original syntax search and the hit count discrepancy (84 vs 85). I’ve determined that 84 is the proper number. In my original syntax search, I should have done two things differently. First, I should have stated morphological criteria for the lexical form χριστος; or I should have just searched for the inflected text Χριστω. Second, the anything objects were unnecessary. A screen shot of the revised query is below. This query returns 84 instances, and these are likely the same 84 instances cited by Konstan and Ramelli in their article.

Syntax Search for εν Χριστω

Hopefully this clarification helps.

Meet Dave Kaplan

From time to time we like to give you the opportunity to get to know the people here at Logos. Today we want to introduce you to Dave Kaplan. Dave has been with Logos since December of 1993, just four months short of veteran Rick Brannan, who recently celebrated 14 years at Logos. The way Logos takes care of its employees and the great people and work environment are two things that make Dave love working at Logos.
Dave spends most of his time on the phone talking with our wonderful customers. Interacting with so many different people makes his job a joy, but he finds it especially rewarding knowing that he is helping to provide thousands of people with a phenomenal tool that can assist them in their walk with God.
In his spare time, Dave enjoys playing chess, which he describes as “the most personal game ever invented,” and building Popsicle stick houses and burning them down with his son, Gregory (so he can learn how quickly a fire can consume a house). He also loves peppers and usually has a couple in his pocket.
“Kaplanisms”
Dave is perhaps best known by those in the sales department for his unique sayings, affectionately called “Kaplanisms.” Dave has a gift—a lot like Yogi Berra did—of unintentionally modifying well-known expressions, combining them together, or just making up his own!
Here’s an example. One morning Dave came into the office apparently wearing too much cologne, and the other guys were giving him a hard time. Dave responded, “I only put a dab on both of my necks.”
The guys in the sales department have been compiling a list of sayings over the last year or so. We were originally going to share them anonymously, but the guys were able to convince Dave that he might get some good publicity and increase his sales!
So without further ado, here are Dave’s “Kaplanisms”:

  • Talking with a customer whom he couldn’t understand at all: “I’m as deaf as a bat!”
  • “I cannot count the countless evenings I spent talking . . . .”
  • Trying to convince a customer: “Sir, I can assure you that I seriously doubt I can’t make you happy.”
  • “That’s like shootin’ an arrow through a bale of hay and not hittin’ any straw!”
  • Explaining to customers to wait until they get the software before worrying about how to install it: “You’re trying to land an airplane, and we haven’t even gotten into the cockpit yet.”
  • Explaining to customers to close down the software before installing an update: “It’s like changing the spark plugs while the motor is runnin’.”
  • ” . . . as happy as a tornado in a cornfield.”
  • “I walked outside this morning and my woods smelled so woodsy!”
  • “If someone buys you a car, you don’t really own it.”
  • “For once I’m finishing my day with my i’s crossed and my t’s . . . how does that saying go again?”
  • “Let’s get down to logic here.”
  • “I can guarantee you we don’t print like the other guy’s software!”
  • “That’s on Pre-Publication—that’s short for Pre-Pub.”
  • “Yeah, it’s all over. Now I can stop being less paranoid.”
  • “I heard very clearly, in my peripheral vision, someone say . . . .”
  • “Are you ready for this? Let me put it this way . . . . I will say this . . . .”
  • “That’s as messed up as a soup sandwich.”
  • Telling people about his flight to Belgium: “It was a 9 hour drive flying!”

During my interview with Dave, I had the privilege of experiencing a new “Kaplanism” firsthand. Dave explained why he never oversells or undersells, but always directs people to the product that is best suited for them: “I have to sleep with myself at night” (an obvious conflation of “I have to live with myself” and “I have to sleep at night”).
If you know Dave or have dealt with him on the phone, leave him a message in the comments!
If you’d like to work with one of Logos’ best sales employees, you can reach Dave directly at (360) 685-2304.