Diagramming Galatians

Terry Cook, one of our users and a regular in our newsgroups, just completed a project that he’s been working on for the last 23 months: diagramming the Greek text of the entire letter of Paul to the Galatians.

He’s annotated his diagrams with grammatical notes, including insights from some of the major Greek grammars available in Libronix. He has grouped his diagrams into these six sections following the major paragraph breaks of the NA27:

  • Galatians 1
  • Galatians 2
  • Galatians 3:1-4:7
  • Galatians 4:8-5:1
  • Galatians 5:2-26
  • Galatians 6

I asked Terry if he’d mind if we made his work available to you, our blog readers, and he said that he would be very happy to share it.

To view these diagrams in Libronix, you’ll need to download this zip file, extract the six files, and put them in your \My Documents\Libronix DLS\SentenceDiagrams folder. If the SentenceDiagrams folder does not exist, simply create it from the File menu or right-click menu.

Then, with Libronix opened, go to File > Open (or Ctrl + O), select Sentence Diagrams from the Types column and one of the diagrams from the Documents column.

Here’s an example of his diagram of Galatians 5:17.

Download them, and give them a look. Perhaps Terry’s work will inspire you to start doing some diagramming of your own!

Recent Tips from Morris

If you haven’t gotten back into the habit of checking Morris Proctor’s Tips & Tricks blog since it started back up at the end of March, you’re missing out. Every Wednesday and Saturday there is a new blog post that will help you become a more advanced Logos user. Even if you’ve been a user for years, you’re sure to pick up some new tips and be reminded of things that you’ve forgotten about.

Here are the last six posts from the Tips & Tricks blog:

A great way to keep up with the latest posts is to add the blog to your RSS reader. The feed to subscribe to is http://feeds.feedburner.com/MorrisProctorsTipsTricks. You can also see the latest posts right in Libronix on the blog section of your Logos home page.

Field Searching: Searching Footnotes and Surface Text

Since we’ve been looking at some of the various fields that you can search in Libronix resources, like OTQuote, DisputedPassage, and LaterAddition in the Greek New Testament and WordsOfChrist (or WOC) in most English Bibles that include the New Testament, I figured I’d continue this little series and mention some of the other fields that you can search.

A field that most books have that you may find helpful in your searching is the footnotes field. You can search footnote text in isolation from the rest of the text of the book by using Footnote: prior to the word or phrase you are searching for (e.g., Footnote:Packer).

Footnotes usually contain more detailed information with bibliographic citations and additional sources for further study. You might find it helpful to search the footnotes of a book to find more books and articles about a topic you’re studying. Not all books include a bibliography at the end, so searching the footnotes with certain key words might give you some great leads to dig deeper.

Another place this might be helpful is in the ESV English-Greek Reverse Interlinear New Testament. The search Footnote:NA27 turns up 151 mentions of the NA27 in the footnotes showing the places where the underlying Greek of the ESV differs from the NA27 text. If you wanted to find all the places where that variation involves θεος, for example, you could search for Footnote:θεος, which turns up 4 places where the ESV Greek text follows a different reading from the NA27 either adding or omitting θεος.

Alternatively, if you ever wanted to exclude footnotes from your searches, many of our books support a Surface field. So a search for Surface:Barth, for example, would ignore any hits in the footnotes.

To see what fields are supported for a given resources, look in "About This Resource," which you can access from the right-click menu in My Library.

You can also access "About This Resource" by clicking click Help > About This Resource with a resource opened and selected.

Here’s an example of the supported fields for The Theology of the Christian Life in J. I. Packer’s Thought.

More field search examples coming soon.

Lots of Pre-Pubs Shipping Soon

If you visit the Pre-Pub page, you’ll see that there are more than a dozen individual titles and collections scheduled to ship in the next few weeks.

There’s something there for everyone.

A. W. Tozer Collection (57 volumes)Collected Writings

Pastoral Ministry

Holman New Testament CommentaryCommentaries

Lexham Greek-English Interlinear New TestamentLanguages

Church History

Norman L. Geisler’s Systematic Theology (4 volumes)Theology

Missions

If you see something here that interests but haven’t placed your preorder yet, you may still be able to get in at the discounted Pre-Pub price.

Update: The Early Church History Collection (7 Vols.) is now shipping and is no longer available at the Pre-Pub price.

Field Searching: Searching the Words of Christ

I mentioned in yesterday’s blog post that you can search specific fields like OTQuote, DisputedPassage, and LaterAddition in the NA27 and UBS4 editions of the Greek New Testament. Another field that you might find helpful in your English Bible searches is WordsOfChrist (or WOC for short). You can use WOC searches in most versions of the Bible that cover the New Testament.

A search for WOC:Father in the ESV yields 236 hits. If we want to see only the places that refer to God the Father (i.e., Father vs. father), we would use WOC:case(Father). We could also use WOC:exact(Father) to omit any potential references to the plural "Fathers" (perhaps at the beginning of a sentence), but in this case there aren’t any so the results are the same either way. (To learn more about search modifiers like case() and exact(), see the Searching section of the Libronix Help Manual and this article on searching.)

We can then graph the results and see that by far the majority of Jesus’ references to His Father occur in John.

This is certainly an important aspect of John’s theology of Jesus as the Son of God. Another search of the words of Christ (woc:nostem("son of god")) shows that the only gospel that records Jesus referring to Himself as the Son of God is John.

If we search for all of the words of Christ in the ESV (WOC:*), we get 40,411 hits in 2,042 verses. If we graph the results, we get this.

This information is sure to come in handy for any serious study on the teachings of Jesus.

Field Searching: Searching OT Quotes in the Greek NT

Did you know that you can limit your searches in the Greek New Testament to the portions that are considered by the editors to be quotations from the Old Testament? In the Logos editions of the NA27 and UBS4, we’ve added special tagging for all the text that appears in the print editions as quotations from the OT. In the NA27, these quotations are designated by italics, in UBS4 by bold.

Simply put the search term OTQuote: in front of the word or phrase you want to search for (e.g., OTQuote:κυριος). Libronix will limit the search to just the OT quotation text. A search in the NA27 for OTQuote:θεος, for example, yields 69 occurrences (compared to 1317 in the entire NT).

Another interesting thing you can do is find all of the OT quotations. Just run the search OTQuote:*. It yields 4662 hits in the NA27. Keep in mind that this is the number of Greek words, not the number of quotations. If we graph these results by number of hits per book, we get this.

So Acts, Matthew, Hebrews, and Romans are the top four. If we graph the results by percentage, we get these results.

The top four by percentage are Hebrews, 1 Peter, Romans, and Galatians.

By the way, there are two other fields that you can search within: DisputedPassage and LaterAddition (e.g., DisputedPassage:κυριος or LaterAddition:κυριος). Disputed passages are indicated by [single square brackets] (e.g., Gal 1:6). Portions of text that the editors consider to be later additions are wrapped in [[double square brackets]] (e.g., John 7:53-8:11).

RefTagger Just Got Even Better

At the end of February, we introduced RefTagger, a free tool for your website or blog that instantly turns your Bible references into links to the version of your choice at BibleGateway.com and, if you choose, Libronix.

Scores of sites are using RefTagger. If you haven’t seen it yet, you can check it out right here on the blog or at any of these sites:

The links that RefTagger creates are very helpful and make it easy for your readers to look up the passages that you cite, but it still takes time to open new web pages. Even careful readers will probably look up only a reference or two.

Problem solved. RefTagger now makes looking up Bible references even easier. Instead of clicking a link to navigate to another web page, now you can immediately see the text of the passage. Simply hovering over any link created by RefTagger will instantly give you a pop-up window containing the text of the passage.

For now we have the New Living Translation and the King James Version available. The NLT is used by default. To use the KJV, you need to choose it as your online Bible version. We hope to add more versions in the near future, so stay tuned.

These new pop-ups are on by default. So if you already had RefTagger on your site, there’s nothing you need to do to see them. If you’d like to disable them, you’ll need to add the line Logos.ReferenceTagging.lbsUseTooltip = false; to the code. When you customize the code at the RefTagger page, all you have to do is uncheck the box and the code will be created for you automatically.

If you’ve been holding off on adding RefTagger to your site, why not give it a try? It’s incredibly easy to add and remove. Help us continue to make RefTagger better by sending your feedback and suggestions to reftaggerlogos.com.

God or a god: A Look at NT Greek Syntax

At Exegetica Digita, one of Mike Heiser’s blogs, he looks at John 10:30-33 and what light our syntax databases shed on the proper translation of the clause at the end of verse 33, "because you, being a man, make yourself God" (in Greek: ὅτι σὺ ἄνθρωπος ὢν ποιεῖς σεαυτὸν θεόν).

Mike explains,

The end of verse 33 is typically taken by both Mormons and Jehovah’s witnesses (for different reasons) as better translated, ". . . you, being a man, make yourself a god," thereby muting this passage as a testimony to the deity of Jesus. They argue that the absence of the definite article before θεόν in verse 33 justifies the translation, "a god."

Mike goes on to show you how to set up a search that will find all the places in the NT with similar syntax to see if the claim holds up that the Greek word for God when it doesn’t have the article (θεός vs. ὁ θεός) should be translated "a god."

The references that his search turns up are Acts 5:29; Gal 4:8, 9; 1 Thes 1:9; 4:1; 2 Thes 1:8; Titus 3:8; and Heb 9:14.

Head over to Mike’s blog to see his conclusion. He even provides you with the syntax search file so you can download it and run it for yourself.

Logos in the Classroom

We just posted a new audio message and transcript from Dale Pritchett, Senior Vice President of Logos Bible Software, at the Academic page. It’s entitled "Logos in the Classroom." The audio runs 15:40 and weighs in at 14.3MB. The transcript is available as a PDF file.

In Dale’s talk you’ll learn some interesting tidbits. For example, last year Logos sold more than 5.2 million digital books. We now have more than 9,000 digital resources available, and we’re on track to produce an additional 2,000 titles every year. Listen to Dale talk about how Logos is revolutionizing the way many Bible college and seminary students and professors are building their libraries.

Understanding Data Types: Language Data Types

In the second post in this data types series, I mentioned two main categories of data types: language data types and reference data types. In this post, we’ll look at language data types and what they mean for executing keylinks (i.e., looking up words) and for searching.

If you need a refresher on data types, you may want to look back over the previous posts. See the links at the bottom of this post.

Since we tag words according to their language, English is a data type, as are Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Syriac, Latin, German, French, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Russian, Portuguese, etc. That means that Libronix knows where to look when you execute a keylink for a given word or phrase. That also means that you can perform language-specific searches.

Let’s take keylinking first.

Keylinking

Setting Up Keylink Targets

To set up keylink targets for your various languages, go to Tools > Options > Keylink, select the appropriate data type from the Data Type drop-down box, and then promote and prioritize the resources however you’d like.

If you need some guidance setting up your keylink preferences, check out these three articles:

Executing Keylinks

Every word, though it does not appear to be hyperlinked, is a keylink, as long as there is an appropriate keylink target. To execute a keylink (i.e., look up the word), simply double click it or choose "Selected Text" > "Execute Keylink" from the right-click menu.

Notice that you can also select a specific keylink target in the half bottom of the right-click menu.

Searching

Usually you don’t need to specify which language you want to search in. But there are at least two instances where this comes in handy.

Same Spelling in More Than One Language

There are times when multiple languages can share the same word with the same spelling. Often these words have totally different meanings. For example, the Latin word bonus (meaning "good") has the same spelling as the English word, but their meanings are different. If you wanted to find only the times where "bonus" occurs in Latin or in English rather than in both, you would have to specify the language in your search. So for Latin, you’d use {la}bonus{/}, and for English you’d use {en}bonus{/}. A search for just bonus would find both English and Latin occurrences.

All Words in a Certain Language

Another time you would want to specify the language would be if you ever wanted to find the total number of words in a particular language in a book. This is what I did in my previous post on which theologian uses the most Latin. To do this, you would want to specify the language and use the regular expression /.+/. So a search for all Greek words would be {el}/.+/{/}.

One place where this could be handy is if you wanted to find the total number of words in a particular book of the Bible. A Bible Search for all Greek words in 1 John in the NA27 yields 2,143 hits, and a search in Paul’s letters yields 32,418 hits.

These numbers can be important for analyzing certain words and their usage across the New Testament.

Another useful thing you could do would be to search the Hebrew OT for all Aramaic words. Using {x-arc}/+./{/} in BHS with Westminster 4.2 Morphology you get 6,899 hits. You’ll see hits not only in Daniel and Ezra, but also in Genesis 31:47 and Jeremiah 10:11.

Search Syntax for Various Languages

Here are the tags you’ll need to search in various languages:

  • English: {en}{/}
  • Latin: {la}{/}
  • Greek: {el}{/}
  • Hebrew: {he}{/}
  • Aramaic: {x-arc}{/}
  • Transliteration: {x-tl}{/}
  • German: {de}{/}
  • French: {fr}{/}

Simply put a word, phrase, or regular expression between the two tags. To find the search syntax for other language data types, use the right-click menu and speed search a particular word in that resource. The syntax you need will be displayed at the top of the search results.

Rick Brannan informed me that we use the ISO 639-1 standard two-letter language codes, and where a two-letter code doesn’t exist we use the standard extensibility method, "x-" followed by a code that we pattern after the standard three-letter codes (e.g., Aramaic is x-arc) or make up where necessary (e.g., transliteration is x-tl). You can find this language code list at the Library of Congress website.

Other posts in this series: