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Diagramming Galatians

Terry Cook, one of our users and a regular in our newsgroups, just completed a project that he’s been working on for the last 23 months: diagramming the Greek text of the entire letter of Paul to the Galatians.

He’s annotated his diagrams with grammatical notes, including insights from some of the major Greek grammars available in Libronix. He has grouped his diagrams into these six sections following the major paragraph breaks of the NA27:

  • Galatians 1
  • Galatians 2
  • Galatians 3:1-4:7
  • Galatians 4:8-5:1
  • Galatians 5:2-26
  • Galatians 6

I asked Terry if he’d mind if we made his work available to you, our blog readers, and he said that he would be very happy to share it.

To view these diagrams in Libronix, you’ll need to download this zip file, extract the six files, and put them in your \My Documents\Libronix DLS\SentenceDiagrams folder. If the SentenceDiagrams folder does not exist, simply create it from the File menu or right-click menu.

Then, with Libronix opened, go to File > Open (or Ctrl + O), select Sentence Diagrams from the Types column and one of the diagrams from the Documents column.

Here’s an example of his diagram of Galatians 5:17.

Download them, and give them a look. Perhaps Terry’s work will inspire you to start doing some diagramming of your own!

Field Searching: Searching Footnotes and Surface Text

Since we’ve been looking at some of the various fields that you can search in Libronix resources, like OTQuote, DisputedPassage, and LaterAddition in the Greek New Testament and WordsOfChrist (or WOC) in most English Bibles that include the New Testament, I figured I’d continue this little series and mention some of the other fields that you can search.

A field that most books have that you may find helpful in your searching is the footnotes field. You can search footnote text in isolation from the rest of the text of the book by using Footnote: prior to the word or phrase you are searching for (e.g., Footnote:Packer).

Footnotes usually contain more detailed information with bibliographic citations and additional sources for further study. You might find it helpful to search the footnotes of a book to find more books and articles about a topic you’re studying. Not all books include a bibliography at the end, so searching the footnotes with certain key words might give you some great leads to dig deeper.

Another place this might be helpful is in the ESV English-Greek Reverse Interlinear New Testament. The search Footnote:NA27 turns up 151 mentions of the NA27 in the footnotes showing the places where the underlying Greek of the ESV differs from the NA27 text. If you wanted to find all the places where that variation involves θεος, for example, you could search for Footnote:θεος, which turns up 4 places where the ESV Greek text follows a different reading from the NA27 either adding or omitting θεος.

Alternatively, if you ever wanted to exclude footnotes from your searches, many of our books support a Surface field. So a search for Surface:Barth, for example, would ignore any hits in the footnotes.

To see what fields are supported for a given resources, look in "About This Resource," which you can access from the right-click menu in My Library.

You can also access "About This Resource" by clicking click Help > About This Resource with a resource opened and selected.

Here’s an example of the supported fields for The Theology of the Christian Life in J. I. Packer’s Thought.

More field search examples coming soon.

Field Searching: Searching the Words of Christ

I mentioned in yesterday’s blog post that you can search specific fields like OTQuote, DisputedPassage, and LaterAddition in the NA27 and UBS4 editions of the Greek New Testament. Another field that you might find helpful in your English Bible searches is WordsOfChrist (or WOC for short). You can use WOC searches in most versions of the Bible that cover the New Testament.

A search for WOC:Father in the ESV yields 236 hits. If we want to see only the places that refer to God the Father (i.e., Father vs. father), we would use WOC:case(Father). We could also use WOC:exact(Father) to omit any potential references to the plural "Fathers" (perhaps at the beginning of a sentence), but in this case there aren’t any so the results are the same either way. (To learn more about search modifiers like case() and exact(), see the Searching section of the Libronix Help Manual and this article on searching.)

We can then graph the results and see that by far the majority of Jesus’ references to His Father occur in John.

This is certainly an important aspect of John’s theology of Jesus as the Son of God. Another search of the words of Christ (woc:nostem("son of god")) shows that the only gospel that records Jesus referring to Himself as the Son of God is John.

If we search for all of the words of Christ in the ESV (WOC:*), we get 40,411 hits in 2,042 verses. If we graph the results, we get this.

This information is sure to come in handy for any serious study on the teachings of Jesus.

Field Searching: Searching OT Quotes in the Greek NT

Did you know that you can limit your searches in the Greek New Testament to the portions that are considered by the editors to be quotations from the Old Testament? In the Logos editions of the NA27 and UBS4, we’ve added special tagging for all the text that appears in the print editions as quotations from the OT. In the NA27, these quotations are designated by italics, in UBS4 by bold.

Simply put the search term OTQuote: in front of the word or phrase you want to search for (e.g., OTQuote:κυριος). Libronix will limit the search to just the OT quotation text. A search in the NA27 for OTQuote:θεος, for example, yields 69 occurrences (compared to 1317 in the entire NT).

Another interesting thing you can do is find all of the OT quotations. Just run the search OTQuote:*. It yields 4662 hits in the NA27. Keep in mind that this is the number of Greek words, not the number of quotations. If we graph these results by number of hits per book, we get this.

So Acts, Matthew, Hebrews, and Romans are the top four. If we graph the results by percentage, we get these results.

The top four by percentage are Hebrews, 1 Peter, Romans, and Galatians.

By the way, there are two other fields that you can search within: DisputedPassage and LaterAddition (e.g., DisputedPassage:κυριος or LaterAddition:κυριος). Disputed passages are indicated by [single square brackets] (e.g., Gal 1:6). Portions of text that the editors consider to be later additions are wrapped in [[double square brackets]] (e.g., John 7:53-8:11).

Understanding Data Types: Language Data Types

In the second post in this data types series, I mentioned two main categories of data types: language data types and reference data types. In this post, we’ll look at language data types and what they mean for executing keylinks (i.e., looking up words) and for searching.

If you need a refresher on data types, you may want to look back over the previous posts. See the links at the bottom of this post.

Since we tag words according to their language, English is a data type, as are Greek, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Coptic, Syriac, Latin, German, French, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Russian, Portuguese, etc. That means that Libronix knows where to look when you execute a keylink for a given word or phrase. That also means that you can perform language-specific searches.

Let’s take keylinking first.

Keylinking

Setting Up Keylink Targets

To set up keylink targets for your various languages, go to Tools > Options > Keylink, select the appropriate data type from the Data Type drop-down box, and then promote and prioritize the resources however you’d like.

If you need some guidance setting up your keylink preferences, check out these three articles:

Executing Keylinks

Every word, though it does not appear to be hyperlinked, is a keylink, as long as there is an appropriate keylink target. To execute a keylink (i.e., look up the word), simply double click it or choose "Selected Text" > "Execute Keylink" from the right-click menu.

Notice that you can also select a specific keylink target in the half bottom of the right-click menu.

Searching

Usually you don’t need to specify which language you want to search in. But there are at least two instances where this comes in handy.

Same Spelling in More Than One Language

There are times when multiple languages can share the same word with the same spelling. Often these words have totally different meanings. For example, the Latin word bonus (meaning "good") has the same spelling as the English word, but their meanings are different. If you wanted to find only the times where "bonus" occurs in Latin or in English rather than in both, you would have to specify the language in your search. So for Latin, you’d use {la}bonus{/}, and for English you’d use {en}bonus{/}. A search for just bonus would find both English and Latin occurrences.

All Words in a Certain Language

Another time you would want to specify the language would be if you ever wanted to find the total number of words in a particular language in a book. This is what I did in my previous post on which theologian uses the most Latin. To do this, you would want to specify the language and use the regular expression /.+/. So a search for all Greek words would be {el}/.+/{/}.

One place where this could be handy is if you wanted to find the total number of words in a particular book of the Bible. A Bible Search for all Greek words in 1 John in the NA27 yields 2,143 hits, and a search in Paul’s letters yields 32,418 hits.

These numbers can be important for analyzing certain words and their usage across the New Testament.

Another useful thing you could do would be to search the Hebrew OT for all Aramaic words. Using {x-arc}/+./{/} in BHS with Westminster 4.2 Morphology you get 6,899 hits. You’ll see hits not only in Daniel and Ezra, but also in Genesis 31:47 and Jeremiah 10:11.

Search Syntax for Various Languages

Here are the tags you’ll need to search in various languages:

  • English: {en}{/}
  • Latin: {la}{/}
  • Greek: {el}{/}
  • Hebrew: {he}{/}
  • Aramaic: {x-arc}{/}
  • Transliteration: {x-tl}{/}
  • German: {de}{/}
  • French: {fr}{/}

Simply put a word, phrase, or regular expression between the two tags. To find the search syntax for other language data types, use the right-click menu and speed search a particular word in that resource. The syntax you need will be displayed at the top of the search results.

Rick Brannan informed me that we use the ISO 639-1 standard two-letter language codes, and where a two-letter code doesn’t exist we use the standard extensibility method, "x-" followed by a code that we pattern after the standard three-letter codes (e.g., Aramaic is x-arc) or make up where necessary (e.g., transliteration is x-tl). You can find this language code list at the Library of Congress website.

Other posts in this series:

Which Theologian Uses the Most Latin: Fun with Data Types and Regular Expressions

I thought it would be fun in our series on understanding data types (see the introduction and definitions) to give you an example of how you can use language data types to perform language-specific searches.

Before we actually get into the searching, let’s see how well you know your theologians. Which of the following theologians uses the most Latin? For the purpose of setting some boundaries, I’m limiting our analysis to theologians who have written a systematic/dogmatic theology.

Here are the ones we’ll be looking at:

What’s your guess? Which one has the highest percentage of Latin?

Here’s how you can find out.

Step 1: Search for All Latin Words

To find all Latin words, there are two things you need to know. First, you need to tell Libronix to search only Latin text. To do so, use {la}{/} putting the word or phrase between the } and the { (e.g., {la}pro{/}). To find all words, you’ll need to use the regular expression /[A-Za-z]+/ or the simpler /.+/ (or /[^0-9]+/, if you want to omit numbers). For simplicity, we’ll use {la}/.+/{/}.

Here are the results in descending numerical order:

  • Barth: 66,896
  • Hodge: 38,674
  • Berkouwer: 11,603
  • Henry: 2,742
  • Strong: 2,528
  • Pannenberg: 2,050
  • Shedd: 2,001
  • Bloesch: 1,812
  • Calvin: 1,034
  • Reymond: 674
  • Chafer: 102
  • Ryrie: 84
  • Finger: 44
  • Duffield & Van Cleave: 19
  • Grudem: 9

Here’s a graph so you can visualize the data.

Click the image to see a larger version.

These results aren’t really "fair" because they don’t take into consideration the size of the work. To get more accurate numbers, we’ll divide the number of Latin words by the number of words in the entire book or set.

Step 2: Search for All Words

To find the total number of words, use the regular expression search /.+/. Notice that we are dropping the language tags because we want to find all words of all languages.

Here are the results in descending numerical order:

  • Barth: 5,327,292
  • Berkouwer: 1,567,109
  • Henry: 1,388,491
  • Chafer: 1,252,806
  • Hodge: 38,674/963,935
  • Strong: 884,930
  • Bloesch: 735,382
  • Calvin: 668,753
  • Shedd: 636,429
  • Pannenberg: 632,803
  • Grudem: 598,925
  • Reymond: 463,720
  • Duffield & Van Cleave: 276,956
  • Ryrie: 209,797
  • Finger: 196,014

Here’s another graph so you can visualize the data.

Click the image to see a larger version.

Barth’s 14-volume Church Dogmatics certainly is a massive work! (As a comparison point, Luther’s 55-volume Works has 8,210,982 words, only 50% more than Barth’s CD.)

When we divide the number of Latin words by the total number of words, we get these percentages (in descending order):

  • Hodge: 4.012% (38,674/963,935)
  • Barth: 1.256% (66,896/5,327,292)
  • Berkouwer: .740% (11,603/1,567,109)
  • Pannenberg: .324% (2,050/632,803)
  • Shedd: .314% (2,001/636,429)
  • Strong: .286% (2,528/884,930)
  • Bloesch: .246% (1,812/735,382)
  • Henry: .197% (2,742/1,388,491)
  • Calvin: .155% (1,034/668,753)
  • Reymond: .145% (674/463,720)
  • Ryrie: .040% (84/209,797)
  • Finger: .022% (44/196,014)
  • Chafer: .008% (102/1,252,806)
  • Duffield & Van Cleave: .007% (19/276,956)
  • Grudem: .002% (9/598,925)

Here’s what those data look like in a graph.

Click the image to see a larger version.

Did you guess Charles Hodge? By percentage his Systematic Theology is the most dense with Latin. If you’re going to read Hodge or many of these other theologians, then you’d better brush up on your Latin or have a good Latin dictionary handy! (Thankfully, all of the Latin in our edition of Barth’s Church Dogmatics includes English translation.)

Currently, the only Latin dictionary that is available in Libronix is Consecrated Phrases: A Latin Theological Dictionary, which comes in the Collegeville Catholic Reference Library. But that’s about to change very soon. We currently have three Latin dictionaries on Pre-Pub.

Be sure to put your pre-order in for one—or all three!

If you’re into Latin, you’ll also want to check out the Works of John Owen (17 volumes), which restores all of Owen’s Latin works left out of modern reprints.

Other posts in this series:

Understanding Data Types: Definitions

Last week I started a series on data types. If you haven’t yet read the first post, Understanding Data Types: Introduction, take a minute to look it over. It’ll give you some very basic starting points that will help you with this post and the following posts.

According to Eli Evans, one of our information architects, “datatypes and keylinking are the two most important concepts in the Libronix DLS.” If you’re like I was prior to digging into this recently, you’re probably missing out on some of the power of Libronix by not fully understanding these key concepts. Eli’s discussion of data types is hard to improve upon, so I’ll just borrow from it and put some of the ideas in my own words. I encourage you to read his post as well.

What Is a Data Type?

A data type is a grouping or association of similar data. There are several different categories of data types. Two of the most common ones, which we’ll discuss in future posts, are language data types (e.g., a Greek word in an English article) and reference data types (e.g., a Bible reference or a Josephus reference).

A data type is not resource specific. Some of the links in Libronix resources will take you to a specific location in a specific resource. There’s only one place the link can go, and if you don’t have the resource, it won’t go anywhere. These are not data type links. There’s a second type of link that doesn’t point to a specific place in a specific resource but rather to a data type that often has several suitable destinations. A great example of this is Bible reference links. Clicking on most Bible references doesn’t take you to a specific Bible like the KJV, but to your preferred Bible, which you can set in Tools > Options > Keylink by selecting Bible from the Data Type drop down and promoting your favorite Bible from the list of resources at the bottom. (You can also select your preferred Bible by clicking “Customize View” on the Logos home page.)

This is one of the benefits to data types: you can choose your keylink targets and prioritize them according to your liking.

What Is a Keylink?

It might be helpful to think of keylink and keylinking as just a fancy way of referring to looking stuff up—things like words (or other bits of text like abbreviations) or references. Reference keylinks look like hyperlinks on web pages (but without the underlining). Clicking them will execute them and open the keylink target based on what resources you have and how you have prioritized them. But just about every word, even if it is not hyperlinked, can be a keylink, as long as there is an appropriate keylink target. (BTW, you execute a keylink that doesn’t look like a hyperlink by double clicking it or by choosing “Selected Text” > “Execute Keylink” from the right-click menu.)

What Is a Keylink Target?

A keylink target is a resource that contains relevant data for a certain data type. So any version of the Bible would be a keylink target for John 1:1. Any English dictionary (as well as any Bible dictionary or encyclopedia) would be a keylink target for an English word. Any Greek lexicon would be a keylink target for a Greek word. And any edition of the Apostolic Fathers would be a keylink target for an Apostolic Fathers reference.

There are two ways to find out if a certain resource can be a keylink target for a given data type. The first is to look in About This Resource, which you can access from the right-click menu in My Library

or, with a resource opened and selected, by clicking Help > About This Resource.

Look for checkmarks in the column titled Keylink Target.

The second way is to look at the data type in Tools > Options > Keylink. Select the data type from the drop-down box (e.g., Greek), and look at the resources listed under “Default Order of Resources and Actions.” These are the resources that Libronix will use to look up that data type. You can promote and prioritize them however you want for each of the data types.

What Does It Mean that a Data Type Is Searchable?

In About This Resource under the Data Types section, there is also a column titled Searchable.

This has to do with reference data types, like Bible references, Calvin’s Institutes references, etc. A checkmark is telling you that you can use the Reference Browser to search for all the places where a given reference or range of references is cited in that particular book or series of books. This is possible for two reasons: (1) our team of book designers and book developers has meticulously tagged these references, and (2) these references are data types. There are most likely other links not listed here because they are not data type links but links to specific locations in specific resources (for the difference, see above under “What Is a Data Type?”). I pointed out one example of this kind of searching in the blog post on the Works of Cornelius Van Til. In a future post, I’ll show some other scenarios where this can be incredibly useful.

Here are some related posts you might find helpful.

Other posts in this series:

Understanding Data Types: Introduction

In Friday’s blog post on the new edition of the Works of Cornelius Van Til, I mentioned how you can now search the works of Van Til for a specific reference or range of references in Calvin’s Institutes or Barth’s Church Dogmatics. This kind of analysis is incredibly helpful for detailed study, and there’s really no other way—at least not that I’m aware of—to get this data apart from doing the tedious work of reading the entire book (or series of books) cover to cover, which is not the ideal solution when you’re dealing with something as large as the works of Van Til!

The reason you can do searches like these in Logos is because we have created data types for Calvin’s Institutes or Barth’s Church Dogmatics (and scores of other resources) and done the tedious work of tagging the references to those data types.

I’ve been spending some time lately playing with data types and have come to realize how powerful they are for advanced study, so I thought some of you might benefit from a brief series of posts on data types. I’m particularly interested in exploring what significance the information in the data type section in About This Resource has for what you can do with various resources.

In this post, let’s just get a very basic acquaintance with data types.

For starters, open My Library, right click on a few different resources, and select About This Resource (or with a resource opened and selected, click Help, About This Resource).

Then scroll down to the Data Types section. You’ll see the data types listed on the left with KeyLink Target and Searchable columns on the right. Each data type will have at least one checkmark after it. Some will have two. Here’s the Data Types section for Van Til’s The Theology of James Daane.

Here’s the Data Types section for the first volume of Barth’s Church Dogmatics.

I’ll explain what all this information means in a future post.

Next, go to Tools > Options > Keylink and select the Data Type drop-down box. Here’s where you can see a list of all of the data types that you have installed on your computer. The number of data types will vary depending on how often you run Libronix Update and what products you own.

Scroll through the list and familiarize yourself with some of the data types listed there.

That’s all for this for post. In the next post, we’ll cover the basics about what data types are and how they can help you do more powerful research.

Other posts in this series:

Bible Speed Search and Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament

First, a teaser. Here’s where we’re going:


Mixing syntactic force and lemmas in a Bible Speed Search?!

[Maybe you just want to cut to the chase and watch the video instead of read. That's fine, go right ahead! — RB]
The Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament comes with two primary views. One is the Syntax Graph, (formal title: The Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament: Sentence Analysis; shortname is LEXHAMSGNTGRAPH) where the text is in a column on the right, and a graph of arrows and lines shows how the text is structured. Hovering the text brings the Expansions and Annotations data for the word into a popup. If you use the Lexham SGNT, this is probably the view you’re most familiar with.
However, there’s another view, one I like to call the “running text” view. This has the text of the Greek New Testament (UBS/NA) but it has one clause on each line, with indentations to show the relationships. This view is also an interlinear. The resource is The Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament, shortname is LEXHAMSGNT. Here’s an example, note that I have my interlinear configured to only show the Greek text and the English gloss line (you can control this in View | Interlinear).


James 3 from the Lexham SGNT

Now, what not many people know about this edition of the Lexham SGNT is that it is tagged for Syntactic Force. This is what many people refer to as “syntax” when they talk about the Greek of the New Testament, and it is the sort of thing that many second-year programs at seminaries and colleges dig into. You can see the clause and phrase breaks and the hierarchy implied by indentation; what you can’t see is that each word carries a syntactic force annotation. So, in the above example, when I hover over ειδοτες, a popup informs me that this could be either a circumstantial participle or an adverbial participle. Definitions of these terms are given as well.


ειδοτες in James 3.1 from the Lexham SGNT

Did you know that you can search for this kind of thing using the Bible Speed Search report? It’s a little verbose, but possible: sgnt-syn = “circumstantial participle” andequals lemma:οιδα In the material covered by the Lexham SGNT, this happens 10 times (I know because I just did the search).
This is just one example; I made a video that explains things a little more. This combines a few different advanced concepts: non-Bible data type searching, the andequals operator (also note the notequals operator) and using the lemma field. But it allows you to find some pretty specific things. Like, copulative conjunctions that aren’t και.

To further facilitate this kind of searching, I’ve also compiled a list of valid syntactic force codes that you can key into the Bible Speed Search dialog. So, instead of having to type “circumstantial participle”, you’d know you could instead type “ptc-circum”. You can download this file (PDF); hopefully it’ll help in your use of the Lexham SGNT.
Lastly, I should note that the Lexham SGNT is a work in progress; at present it includes annotations of Romans-Galatians and Hebrews through Revelation. If you find annotations that you don’t agree with or would like to suggest alternate annotations, we want to know about it. Send an email to syntax@logos.com and we’ll make sure it gets to the editor.

Doing Things Faster with the Keyboard, Part 2

In yesterday’s blog post I talked about how using keyboard shortcuts can make work in Libronix faster than using just a mouse. The post was triggered by an interaction that I had with a friend who was adjusting to Logos after years as a user of another Bible software program.

One of the other things that he said he missed in Logos was a command line. This is where the Quick Navigation Bar (a.k.a. Go Box) comes in handy. The Quick Navigate Bar is a toolbar that comes with the free Power Tools Addin (read about or watch how to download it). Here’s what it looks like.


The Quick Navigate Bar

It should appear in your toolbar area, which by default is at the top of your screen. If you don’t see it and have the Power Tools Addin installed, make sure to activate it by right clicking in the toolbar area and checking the box next to Quick Navigate Bar.


Toolbar Menu

Since we’re talking about saving time with the keyboard, the first thing you’ll want to know is that to activate the Go Box and be able to start typing in it, you’ll want to use Ctrl+Shift+G. If your hands are already on the keyboard, this is quicker than reaching for the mouse and clicking the box.

So what can you actually do with this box?

Its most basic use is to jump to a passage of Scripture in your default Bible (which you can set on the home page or in Tools > Options > Keylink > Keylinking > Bible). Type in any standard Bible reference, and your preferred Bible will open instantly. References like John 3:16, Jn 3.16, Jn 3 16 will all work.

You can also use it to open up various Bible translations. By typing ESV or NIV and hitting enter, the appropriate Bible version will open. Hit tab (which activates the reference box in the newly opened resource) and type in a reference to jump to a particular location. Most of the standard abbreviations for Bible versions will work.

The Quick Navigation Bar also recognizes some of the standard commentary series abbreviations like WBC, PNTC, NIGTC, and K&D. You can type in the full titles like Preaching the Word or New American Commentary or portions of titles like Pulpit and Lange’s.

You can use it to open other essential tools like BDAG (by typing bdag), HALOT (by typing hal or halot), Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (by typing anchor), ISBE (by typing isbe), and many others.

The guaranteed identifier for each resource is the file name minus the extension. So, to open up MacArthur’s commentary on 1 Corinthians, you would type 1comntc. You can find this information by viewing About This Resource, which is available in the right-click menu in My Library or in the Help menu (with the resource opened and selected). Taking the time to look these up and memorize them will probably be worth the time investment if you frequently open certain resources. Or you might prefer, as I do, to simply create keyboard shortcuts.

While some things are faster with the mouse, others are faster with the keyboard. It’s best to get in the habit of using both for the things they do best. Give some of these tips a try and see if using the Go Box doesn’t speed up some of the common tasks you perform in Libronix.

For more on the Go Box, check out these two previous posts:

See also part 1.