Moulton & Milligan’s Vocabulary of the Greek Testament

Do you find yourself living in a Greek lexicon as you work through the text of the New Testament?
Do you do look for the lexicon to tell you more about how a word is used, and the different contexts in which the word is used?
If you do, chances are you have already invested in what many consider to be the best lexicon for New Testament Greek, BDAG. And chances are that you love it.
Did you know that there is another Greek lexicon, focused on words that are used in the New Testament, that largely complements BDAG?
It is called The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, put together by James H. Moulton and George Milligan in the early 1900′s.
Now, “The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament” is not a great name because it doesn’t just sound like a lexicon. But it is. And it isn’t a lexicon like BDAG is a lexicon. That is, it doesn’t re-plow the same field of sources (New Testament, LXX, Apostolic Fathers, Josephus, Philo, Greek Pseudepigrapha, etc.) that BDAG and other Greek NT lexica do; instead Moulton and Milligan (hereafter M-M, which is the way BDAG cites it) plow through the ground of the hordes of papyri that were found in the late 1800′s and early 1900′s, focused on papyri usage of vocabulary items that occur in the Greek New Testament (hence the “Vocabulary” name). They’re looking for insight from how these under-utilized papyri use the same words found in the Greek New Testament.
That’s why M-M is largely complementary to BDAG. They aren’t examining the same sources; they’re examining altogether different uses of the same words. And it is M-M‘s insight, from these scads of papyri that have been found and analyzed, that complements BDAG so well — in fact, so well, that BDAG routinely refers the reader to M-M where M-M has pertinent information. What kind of information? Here’s an example that Milligan uses in his introduction:

In what are probably the earliest of his letters that have come down to us, the two Epistles to the Thessalonians, St. Paul finds it necessary to rebuke his converts for walking “in a disorderly manner” (2 Thess 3:11). The word (ἀτάκτως), with its cognates, is confined to these Epistles in the New Testament, and what exactly is meant by it is by no means clear at first sight. Is St. Paul referring to actual sin or moral disorder, or to something less heinous? The papyri have supplied the answer in a striking manner. Among them is a contract of A.D. 66 [P.Oxy.II 275] in which a father arranges to apprentice his son with a weaver for one year. All the conditions of the contract as regards food and clothing are carefully laid down. Then follows the passage which specially interests us. If there are any days during this period on which the boy “fails to attend” or “plays truant” (ὅσας δʼ ἐάν ἐν τούτω ἀτακτήση ἡμέρας), the father has to produce him for an equivalent number of days after the period is over. And the verb which is used to denote playing truant is the same verb which St. Paul uses in connexion with the Thessalonians. This then was their fault. They were idling, playing truant. The Parousia of the Lord seemed to them to be so close at hand that it was unnecessary for them to interest themselves in anything else. Why go to their daily work in the morning, when before night Christ might come, they thought, forgetting that the best way to prepare for that coming was to show themselves active and diligent in the discharge of their daily work and duty.

If you don’t have The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament in your Logos Bible Software library yet (and it presently isn’t in any packages, not even Portfolio) you might want to consider adding it today.

Cranfield on Romans

Cranfield on Romans and other New Testament EssaysC.E.B. Cranfield is perhaps best known for his two-volume commentary on Romans, which is part of the International Critical Commentary series (ICC, see here and here). And this is rightly so, his commentary is magesterial. But a writer can only handle so many issues in a commentary volume. Many times the rabbit trails run longer than the space one has available.
Did you know that Cranfield also published a collection of essays called On Romans and Other New Testament Essays? While this title is in the Portfolio (LE) collection of Logos Bible Software, chances are — particularly if you’re new to Logos Bible Software in the past few years — you didn’t even know it was available.
In On Romans Cranfield has more of a chance to dig into things that just don’t fit in the framework of a commentary. The table of contents has some details:

  1. ‘The Works of the Law’ in the Epistle to the Romans
  2. A Note on Romans 5:20-21
  3. Romans 6:1-14 Revisited
  4. Sanctification as Freedom: Paul’s Teaching on Sanctification, with special reference to the Epistle to the Romans
  5. Some Comments on Professor J.D.G. Dunn’s Christology in the Making with special reference to the evidence of the Epistle to the Romans
  6. Preaching on Romans
  7. On the Πιστις Χριστου (Pistis Christou) Question
  8. Giving a Dog a Bad Name: A note on H. Räisänen’s Paul and the Law
  9. Has the Old Testament Law a Place in the Christian Life? A response to Professor Westerholm
  10. Who Are Christ’s Brothers? (Matthew 25:40)
  11. The Resurrection of Jesus Christ
  12. Some Reflections on the Subject of the Virgin Birth
  13. A Response to Professor Richard B. Hays’ The Moral Vision of the New Testament

As you can see, you also get peeks at Cranfield’s take on areas outside of Romans, and even comments on some on-going discussions like the πιστις Χριστου debate. This is excellent stuff. Printed reviews of On Romans are positively glowing (see the product page for some excerpts). Maybe it’s time to add On Romans to your library too.

Göttingen Septuagint (LXX), Now With Provisional Morphology

In November of 2010, we released the introductory material, text and apparatuses of the highly-acclaimed Göttingen Septuagint.
We’d planned on releasing the fully morphologically analyzed text, but weren’t able to release it at that time. Due to the importance of the apparatus material, we decided it was worth shipping the product without the morphological analysis, and updating later as the analysis became available. As I mentioned in a previous post about the Lexham LXX Interlinear, the Septuagint is big. The material available for Göttingen is more than three times the size of the New Testament.
Since then, we’ve had some breakthroughs and are thrilled to be able to release a provisional edition of the Göttingen Septuagint with morphological analysis. Nearly 99% of the words in the text are analyzed, with morphology and lemma information; the vast majority of those have English gloss information as well. If you’re a Logos 4 user and have already purchased the Göttingen Septuagint, then the updates have likely already downloaded for you.
What do you mean by “Provisional”?
That’s a good question. What we mean by “provisional” is that we’ve done a load of analysis and comparison with our existing Septuagint morphology (used in the Lexham LXX Interlinear and also in the Septuagint with Logos Morphology) and where we could make reliable assumptions about agreements between the two texts, we incorporated the agreeing morphology and lemma information. This is where the “nearly 99%” number comes from. For areas that did not reliably agree, we used other data sets to prepopulate morphology and lemma information; these will be reviewed and corrected over the next months. As individual volumes are reviewed, updates of those volumes will be made available to Logos users who have already purchased Göttingen.
We plan to start the review process in early 2011, but since the coverage was much greater than we’d anticipated, it makes sense to release the provisional edition so that people who already have purchased the Göttingen Septuagint can begin to use the morphology. You know, use features like:

  • Morphological Searching
  • Lemma-based KeyLinking
  • Morphological Visual Filters
  • Sympathetic Highlighting

While some portions will be reviewed and corrected during this process, the vast majority of the analysis is reliable as it presently stands. Some of the alternate resources (the “alpha” text of Esther and the alternate text of Habakkuk 3) have no analogue in other LXX editions, so the tagging on these is in a much more provisional state than the rest of the material.
Note for Mac Users: This is a 4.2 only update. Mac users on 4.0b will continue to use the older versions of the resources. Mac users on 4.2 beta will be able to use the resources. If a Mac user is on 4.0b and wants to have the provisional morph edition, then they can install the beta, and the resources should automatically follow.
Enjoy these updates to your Göttingen Septuagint; and thanks for being patient with us while we make these resources even better!

Greek Syntax: Preposition with Multiple Objects

Awhile back in the Logos newsgroups, someone asked this question:

I am trying to do a search of the Greek where you have a controlling preposition followed by two nouns joined by a conjunction. I am sure it can be done, but I am not experienced enough with searches to do it.

A couple of examples might help you understand what I am trying to accomplish. In John 3:5 you have EX (εξ) being the controlling preposition followed by UDATOS KAI PNEUMATOS (υδατος και πνευματος) the two nouns UDATOS (υδατος) and PNEUMATOS (πνευματος) joined by a conjunction KAI (και).

This example is one of those things that is just easier to explain in the context of a video than in writing. So I shot a video—watch out, it clocks in at over 15 minutes—to show how I worked through the problem.

Click the image below to launch the video in a new Window, or download it and save it for later.

syntax-search-multi-object-prepositions.png

Watch | Download

An Updated Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint

A few months back, we released the initial version of the Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint. That version included several books of the Septuagint (also known as the “LXX,” it is the Greek translation of the Old Testament, plus some apocryphal/deuterocanonical books). Our plan has always been to release more content as it becomes available.

Well, more content has become available, and we’ve updated the resource. If you already own a copy of the Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint, then all you need to do is run the resource auto-update script, or if you’re on a Mac, head to the product page and download the new file. If you haven’t purchased the Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint yet, then you can order your copy today. (Why would you want the Septuagint? Read this post for some answers.)

What has been updated?

Because we want to get more content out sooner, we are releasing the books in various stages of done-ness. There are two stages. The first stage is a “draft” stage, which represents the finished draft from the translator, supplied to Logos. The second stage is an “edited” stage, in which the general editor (Randall Tan) has reviewed and edited the draft-stage translation.

In the below lists, all available books are listed in their current stage.

If a title is bold, then it is new to that stage. So Genesis, Numbers, Job, Zechariah and Malachi are new to the edited stage; they were in a draft stage in the previous release. And Judith, II Maccabees, III Maccabees, Wisdom of Solomon and Jonah are new books altogether (added to the draft stage).

Books in an edited status are as follows:

  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Numbers
  • Ruth
  • Job
  • Psalms
  • Additional Psalm (Psalm 151)
  • Proverbs
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Song of Solomon
  • Obadiah
  • Haggai
  • Zechariah
  • Malachi
  • Letter of Jeremiah

The following books are in draft status:

  • Judith
  • II Maccabees
  • III Maccabees
  • Wisdom of Solomon
  • Psalms of Solomon
  • Jonah
  • Jeremiah
  • Baruch
  • Lamentations
  • Ezekiel

There is still a decent amount of work left to do on the remaining books, but our translators and editor have been hard at work. As more content becomes available, we will update and re-release the updated resource so that registered users can have the latest material available—of course, at no additional charge.

An Important Update to Josephus in Greek

One of the benefits in doing what I do is interacting with different folks about the projects I’m privileged to work on. I get to interact with all sorts of people, many of whom give us valuable feedback on different products and projects. This happened within the past week, and I wanted to share the story.
Logos recently released the Josephus in Greek: Niese Critical Edition with Apparatus. This was a large project and involved a lot of work by a lot of people. It was a great feeling to finally hear that it had shipped because, with the apparatus and the newly-translated prefaces, this puts a lot of stuff that wasn’t easily available into the hands of a lot of folks.
After Josephus in Greek: Niese Critical Edition with Apparatus had been released a few weeks, I was forwarded some feedback from Steve Mason, who is a specialist in the study of Josephus. Some of Steve’s work is available in Logos format, see Josephus and the New Testament and the Flavius Josephus Collection.
Anyway, Steve rightly noted that, while in the Greek text, it wasn’t that easy to see if there were apparatus entries for a particular line of text. The Greek text and apparatus are separate resources that can scroll together, this allows one to scan the whole apparatus to notice if there are trends in omission/addition/correction sources. But it meant that the Greek text itself didn’t provide clues of apparatus entries. He was suggesting that we try to do some sort of linking to make the content easier to access.
In our correspondence, we figured out a solution to the problem. I could insert an apparatus note indicator after a line number if the line had an entry in the apparatus. Yeah, it sounds weird when you write it out. Here’s a picture of the newly-revised resource. Note the dagger (†) after the line number, that is the indicator of apparatus material relevant to the line:

The hover allows one to consult the apparatus content quickly. Note how it displays underneath the Greek line, so you can see which entry applies to which word in the line. If you would like to consult the apparatus further, just click on the indicator (†) instead of hovering on it, and the apparatus itself will be opened to the proper location.
All in all, this should help make the apparatus content even more approachable and useable. True, we should’ve had this type of feature implemented in the first place, but thanks to Steve Mason’s feedback and our conversation, we now have this implemented and available for everyone who purchased the Josephus in Greek: Niese Critical Edition with Apparatus collection.
How do you get it? Just go to our resource FTP site: ftp://ftp.logos.com/lbxbooks and look for the file JOSGK.lbxlls. Download it, put it in your resource folder, and the next time you start Logos it should be there and ready to go. (Vista users may want to consult this page for further info on downloading resources)

Why Should I Worry about the Septuagint (LXX)?

I recently posted about the progress we’ve made on our The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint (LXX), but that post was primarily about our progress. It didn’t really answer the question, “Why should I worry about the Septuagint?”
Books have been written in attempts to answer that question; several are available for Logos Bible Software:

As you can see, much ink has been spilled on the topic of the importance and role of the Septuagint (LXX) in Biblical Studies. I don’t think I’ll answer the question conclusively here, but hopefully I can shed some light on it.
So, why worry about the Septuagint?
Well, for starters, virtually every Bible study method I know of—particularly those geared to students without advanced training in Greek and Hebrew—recommend the consultation of several different Bible translations when examining a passage. Did you know that the Septuagint (LXX) is the oldest translation of the Hebrew Bible that we have? So, when examining a passage in the Old Testament, it can be helpful to examine the LXX as well because it is another translation. The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint makes some of the differences between the Hebrew and LXX available through translation differences and also through notes. Used in conjunction with the Lexham Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible, with reputable commentaries on OT books, and with other English translations, The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint can be a benefit to your study.
Second, if you’re studying a New Testament passage that quotes the Old Testament, you should check out the source of that quotation. Many times, the NT author is likely using the Septuagint (LXX) and not the Hebrew Scriptures directly. This means examining the fuller context of the quote source is important to understanding how the NT author is using the passage. The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint makes this larger context more accessible, particularly to those who may have only focused on the study of Greek in the New Testament.
(An aside, the best and most comprehensive treatment of the NT’s use of the OT is Carson and Beale’s Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, edited by D.A. Carson and G.K. Beale, available for Logos Bible Software in the Baker Hermeneutics Collection (14 vols.))
Third, if you’re studying an Old Testament passage that uses an obscure Hebrew word, looking to the Greek of the Septuagint can help in understanding what may have been in the underlying Hebrew text. This in turn can help in coming to a better understanding of the Old Testament text. Consult lexicon articles (such as those in HALOT) which also mention how these more obscure Hebrew words may have been translated in to Greek; use these as a base to track down other citations that use the Greek word in a similar manner.
The same can be said, perhaps to a greater degree, of obscure New Testament words. Examining the Septuagint use of an obscure NT word can be enlightening. Again, use a lexicon (like BDAG) which classifies senses and provides both LXX and NT citations to hunt down LXX citations to follow up on instances like this.
These are only a few reasons why the Septuagint (LXX) should play a role in one’s study of both the Old Testament and the New Testament. So what are you waiting for? Subscribe to the pre-pub, lock in your low price, and reserve your copy of The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint today!

Progress on The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint

The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint is a project that we’ve been working on for some time. This is perhaps one of the largest projects we’ve taken on, involving 29 (at present) contributors and two editors (Randall Tan, the General Editor, and David A. deSilva, the Contributing Editor). Several of the contributors have also contributed copious notes covering different text-critical, translational and lexical issues. In this first release, a 20-book portion (see book list below), there are over 6700 notes.
In tandem with the development of the interlinear portions, we have also been working on a new morphology to the Septuagint (LXX) that will accompany the interlinear.
As mentioned on the pre-pub page, our plan all along has been to release portions as they are available. Those who have been Logos customers for awhile may recall that this is how we released the Lexham Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible. There is one resource; as new portions are available the resource will be updated to include those new portions, and released on FTP. Those who have the license simply download the update to get the revised and updated resource.
I’m happy to report that we finally have our first major chunk of The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint just about ready to release. There are 20 books of the LXX included in this release. Books fall into two different categories, those in a draft status, and those in an edited status. The draft status means that by and large, the interlinear portions have been completed by the contributor but they have not yet been reviewed by the editor. The edited status means that the interlinear portions have been reviewed by the project general editor.
Books in an edited status are as follows:

  • Exodus
  • Ruth
  • Psalms
  • Additional Psalm (Psalm 151)
  • Proverbs
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Song of Solomon
  • Obadiah
  • Haggai
  • Letter of Jeremiah

The following books are in draft status:

  • Genesis
  • Numbers
  • Job
  • Jeremiah
  • Lamentations
  • Ezekiel
  • Zechariah
  • Malachi
  • Baruch
  • Psalms of Solomon

The interlinear has seven interlinear lines; these are:

  • Manuscript
  • Manuscript (Transliterated)
  • Greek Lemma
  • Greek Lemma (Transliterated)
  • Morphology
  • English Lexical Value
  • English Literal Translation

Why are there two English entries for each word? The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint, takes advantage of its digital environment to offer multiple layers of English glosses that reflect the complexity of the Greek language structure. Like the other Lexham interlinears (Hebrew-English Bible and Greek-English NT) there are two levels of interlinear translation. The first is the English Lexical Value, which is a gloss of the lexical or dictionary form of the word. The second is the English Literal Translation, a contextually sensitive gloss of the inflected form of the word. The difference in these glosses is subtle, but powerful. The first gloss answers the question, “What does this word mean?” The second gloss answers the question, “What does this word mean here?”
The English Literal Translation line also includes a word order number, where necessary, to allow the reader to re-assemble the text in an order more friendly to English readers. The below screen capture, with only the Manuscript and English Literal Translation lines shows how helpful this can be:

One would reassemble the text as follows:

1And (then) the Lord spoke all these words, saying, 2“I am the Lord your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt, out of the house of servitude. 3There will be not to you other gods except me! (Exodus 20:1-3)

Somewhat rough, of course, but remember it is an interlinear translation. The goal is make it easier for the LXX to play a role in one’s study of the Bible, both Old Testament and New Testament.
If you haven’t subscribed to this pre-pub already, you may want to consider it sooner than later. Once the first portion ships, the pre-pub will be filled, and then the price will go up.

Introducing the Lexham Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament

Lexham Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament DOWNLOADWhat in the world are those crazy people at Logos doing now? What is The Lexham Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament? Why another lexicon?

There are a few reasons, actually. Here are three of them.

First, this lexicon takes advantage of the classification in Louw & Nida’s Greek-English Lexicon based on Semantic Domains and offers definitions of each lemma broken into the different senses used in the Greek New Testament, as shown below.

Second, this lexicon lists every instance of every word in the NA27/UBS4 Greek New Testament classified by Louw-Nida sense. Why is this important? It means that you can be in the Greek New Testament, KeyLink into the Lexham Analytical Lexicon, and (particularly if you’re using the Active Reference Visual Filter) note the classification of the instance from which you KeyLinked.

[Read more...]

Saved by the Logos Electronic Book Catalogue!

I’ve worked at Logos for a long time — fifteen years! There used to be a time when I knew every title and author we published. But we’re publishing so much, and putting so much more on pre-pub, that I lost track of it all.
Actually, I lost track of it all long ago. We have a lot of books available. I tend to only keep track of certain areas that have to do with my primary areas of study — Greek, linguistics, Pauline Epistles, and early church.
But something neat happened to me this past weekend. My lovely wife will be attending a ladies’ Book Study at the church we attend. They’ll be reading and discussing Bryan Chappell’s book, Holiness by Grace.
On a whim, I searched the Logos web site for “chapell” by just typing it in the upper-right corner of the page, like this:

Here’s what I found in the “Downloadable Products” section of the results:

How cool is that? We’ve actually done the book already! Now I’ll have it in my Logos Library at home too, so Amy and I can work through the book together as she attends the book study this fall.
But what was really cool to me was that I searched Logos on a whim. I had no idea if we had Holiness by Grace available or not. But we’ve done so many books in the past few years that I figured it was worth a chance.
This is a book that I’d never look for; that I wouldn’t have even known to search for had my sweet wife not signed up for the book study. But it was there when I looked for it. Why? Because Logos does lots of high-quality, useful books from lots of different publishers so that not only will you find the stuff you know you want; you might even find stuff you didn’t know you wanted.
Who knows? Maybe that book you need for a class or a study is available in Logos format too!