Syntax Search Example: Two Words in the Same Word Group

A user commented on a recent post:

On the OpenText site, http://divinity.mcmaster.ca/OpenText/resources/articles/a8, Matthew Brook O’Donnell mentions the ability to find THEOS and AGAPE within the same word group. I have not been able to do that yet, probably because I can’t yet figure out the nesting structure I need in my search.
I wonder if you might demonstrate that or point me to one of your earlier tutorials where you have done something similar.

Since I haven’t blogged about syntax searches like this, and since there is a very cool technique using the Agreement dialogue that makes this sort of search (find two words in any order) fairly simple, I figured I’d do a screen recording video to show y’all how it works.

There are two searches detailed in the video. One answers the question with a very general search, the other searches a bit more specifically.

Grammatical Relationships: Parallel English & Original Language

An earlier post on the Bible Word Study Grammatical Relationships feature garnered the following comment. I inserted the referenced graphic as well.

When I do what you did, I get everything except the side by side translations of the passage as you show above (where you made the notes in red). For instance, I just show the cite Matt 13:14, but not the translations with the colored keys to the study word and the subject. What am I missing?

Yes, this isn’t exactly obvious. Grammatical Relationships mirrors the preferences you have set for syntax search results. So try creating a basic syntax search — such as searching for all primary clauses with the word ἀγαπάω as the predicator (verb) in the OpenText.org database. You know, like we find in John 3.16. Here’s a short video to show you how: Flash, 9:20, 11 megs, with sound. [NB: When I recorded the video, my computer was in the midst of a massive process that took some significant processor cycles. So it's a little slow in some areas.]

Then modify the search results. Note the “Current View” drop-down in the results menubar. This controls the columns. Also note the Bible button. This is where the English will come in. If your preferred Bible is the ESV, then toggling the button on should cause the ESV to display with proper highlighting in the search results window. Again,

href="http://www.logos.com/media/blog/swf/SyntaxSearchResults/SyntaxSearchResults.html">the video shows you how this works.

These preferences will then be mirrored in Grammatical Relationships.

Greek Syntax: Sleepy Disciples

Hi folks, I’m back after an extended holiday. And for an upcoming home group study, I’m starting to work through the epistle to the Colossians. So I’ve been reading it recently. In reading, I came across Colossians 1.9, which has the phrase “we have not ceased to pray for you”. In looking at the word “pray”, I noticed this is a predicator (“pray”, in an embedded clause) with an adjunct (“for you”). At least, that’s how the ESV translates it. So I wondered what other sorts of adjuncts modify the word used here for “pray” (προσεύχομαι).

This was the beginning of a rabbit trail, but a fun one. I won’t detail the syntax search (I’ve done similar searches before, check the syntax archives) but I would like to poke around a bit in one area where some interesting hits were grouped together.

In searching for adjuncts that modify προσεύχομαι, I happened across Matthew 26.36-46. In those 10 verses, there are three instances of προσεύχομαι. The first (v. 36) has two adjuncts, the second (v. 42) has three adjuncts, and the third (v. 44) has four adjuncts.

This concentration seemed interesting, so I poked through the text further. I spent all of 15 minutes or so thinking about this before I recorded the one-take video below, but it is an example of the kinds of thoughts that slowing down and examining the clause structure through the syntax graph can generate.

Serendipitous discovery facilitated.

A Trick With Bible Speed Search

One thing I use the Bible Speed Search feature for is to do quick searches of the New Testament for a Greek word, but display my hits in English.

Huh?

Yes, I type in a Greek lemma, but the results are provided in English with the proper English word highlighted. Rather than explain it all, I figured I’d put a quick video together to show you.

Note in the video that I use the F2 key to cycle between English, Hebrew and Greek keyboards (in that order) in order to type in English and Greek on the same line. I probably should’ve mentioned that, but it’s too late now.

Remember, you can do this with right-clicks too. See this previous entry for more details (with a video).

Bible Word Study Report Round-up

It seems a good thing to have one place we can point to for a listing of all of the posts on the Bible Word Study report. So here it is.

If you’ve recently stumbled across the Logos Bible Software Blog, then you’ve likely missed some of these posts. Check ‘em out!

Bible Word Study Report Part VII: Report Properties

This is the seventh and final portion of my series on the Bible Word Study (BWS) report. It’s been a few weeks since I’ve blogged on this topic, but it is time to wrap up the thread.

Since we’ve only discussed how the Bible Word Study report deals with Greek text, we’ll limit this discussion to the options for Greek words inside of the report.

The report properties are broken up in sections—the same sections that are included in the BWS report itself. So the Lemma properties have to do with the Lemma, etc. So we’ll refer back to earlier posts as we step through each section’s properties.

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Logos Chili Day!

Every year, around the 4th of July, Logos has a company Chili Cook-Off. This is the grandaddy that started them all (the curry cookoff, the soup cookoff and the salsa cookoff are spinoffs of the chili cookoff!).
Today, July 7, 2006, is our Seventh Annual Chili Cookoff. You can check out some photos and commentary from last year’s Chili Cookoff if you’d like.
We’ll post the results on Monday, so stay tuned!

Syntax and Linguistics

Logos Bible Software 3 offers syntactic databases for the Hebrew Bible and for the Greek New Testament. Some of these resources (the Andersen-Forbes Analyzed Text and Phrase Marker Analysis and also the OpenText.org Syntactically Analyzed Greek New Testament) are informed to one degree or another by linguistics.

I can hear the feedback now: “Huh? Linguistics? Why? Isn’t syntax just syntax? You mean I need to learn about linguistics too?!

David Alan Black, in his helpful book Linguistics for Students of New Testament Greek, describes the importance of linguistics for students of New Testament Greek in this way:

When we study linguistics we are learning how to put the Greek language in its rightful place as a part — perhaps the most technical part — of our work in the text of the New Testament. Through exposure and practice, we can acquire a broader, more confident command of New Testament Greek. …But more importantly, the study of linguistics can contribute a great deal to our understanding of the meaning of the New Testament. It can help us become more aware of why we understand a text the way we do when we read it, and it can help us talk about the text more precisely, by providing us with a methodology through which we can show how interpretation is in part derived from grammatical considerations. Linguistics may also help solve problems of interpretation by showing us why one meaning is possible but not another. Above all, however, linguistics can give us a point of view, a way of looking at a text that will help us develop a consistent analysis, and prompt us to ask questions about the language of the text that we might have otherwise overlooked. (Black 3, emphasis mine)

I’ve highlighted the final portion of the quote because it describes so well one of the primary ways in which the syntax graphs (more on graphs here, here and here) for both the Hebrew Bible (more here) and the Greek New Testament (more here and here) can be used in one’s study.

Much of the information about linguistics is already dealt with in the encoding of the databases. The syntax graphs merely make the underlying information explicit. They give you a picture to visualize the linguistic goings-on, here described mostly in terms of syntax.

The bottom line is if you start to read the text using the syntax graphs, a few things will happen.

  • First, you’ll slow down and take a look at the bigger picture.
  • Second, you’ll see clause structure (verbs, subjects, objects, etc.) that you likely would not have seen just reading through a paragraph of original language text.
  • Third, you’ll begin to look across passages for, say, what sorts of things (objects/complements/adjuncts/adverbs/prepositional phrases) further modify verbs (predicators) to track action through a passage. You’ll start to look at subjects to see if the subject is the same, or if it changes.
  • Fourth, as you begin to look at the text in this different way, you’ll have different cues to remind you of things you’ve seen before.
  • Fifth, as Black notes, you’ll start to develop the basis on which to ask further questions of the text. You’ll notice new, different things. And those new, different things will complement your study of the text.

All of it will help you draw connections — here formulated on the basis of syntax and linguistics — to complement other connections you’ve already made based on other reading, morphology, commentary, text-critical aspects, and the like. In short, slowly reading through the syntax graph (by all means read the normal text first, and read translations too!), keeping track of the text at a syntactic level as opposed to just words on a page draws on other influences and helps with developing a larger picture of what’s going on in a particular passage.

Syntax Search Example: More Searching for Qualification


Once again, in the home group study, I ran across a phrase that caused me to ask a question. This time I’m in First Thessalonians 5.2 and the phrase is “day of the Lord”.

Earlier, I’d searched for “What other things qualify παρουσία?” (see post here). In this example, I use that same search as a starting point (sort of like a template) to search for “What other things qualify ἡμέρα (‘day’)?”

So this video (Flash, 11 megs, with sound) shows how to load the old query (which was saved) and modify it.

But as I was making the video, I had a flash of insight: I could use the OpenText.org semantic domain tagging to search for something similar but not constrain myself to vocabulary. I could search for where references to deity qualified words in the time domain. So I run through that aspect of modifying the search as well.

Organizing an Outline with Syntax Graphs

Awhile back, I blogged on how syntax graphs aren’t just helpful when it comes to searching. They can be very helpful when reading through the text as well. And they can help one organize thoughts and approach when teaching or preaching on a passage.

A case in point is First Thessalonians 5.12-13. I dug into this passage in preparation for a home group Bible study. The OpenText.org Syntactically Analyzed Greek New Testament: Clause Analysis helped me to organize my thoughts on how this passage is structured, therefore it helped in thinking how this passage should be understood.

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